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Cappa Santa

Cappa Santa

Ingredients

  • 3 teaspoons chopped shallots
  • 6 teaspoons dry white wine

Recipe Preparation

  • Preheat broiler. Put 6 scallop baking shells on a baking sheet. Put 1 large sea scallop in each shell. Top each with 1/2 teaspoon chopped shallots, 1/2 teaspoon butter, and 1 teaspoon dry white wine. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Put them under the broiler for 3 minutes. This recipe should take you about 5 minutes to do – it takes me 1 minute. Got it? Sprinkle with chopped Italian parsley. Add a squeeze of lemon and they're ready to serve. Don't burn your fingers!

Recipe by Silvano MarchettoReviews Section

Coffee Jargon: How the Cappuccino Got Its Name

Many folks swear by their cappuccino as a kind of morning savior, but did you know the drink's name has supposedly a blessed history? Today, we'll look into how the most sacred of coffee drinks came to have such an evocative appellation.

In Italian, cappuccino literally means "little cap," which perfectly describes the luscious head of foamed milk that sits atop the drink's espresso base.

It also allegedly derives from a religious sartorial inspiration: With their iconic brown hooded cowls and shaved heads, the monks of Capuchin are a pretty close human resemblance to the ring of crema and white foam that tops the classic beverage. An offshoot of the Franciscan Catholic order, these friars struck out on their own in 1520, adopting the coffee-colored cloak, or cappuccio, as an imitative sign of gratitude to the Benedictine Camaldolese monks, who offered Capuchins refuge while they dodged persecution from church officials.

When expertly poured so that a circle of white is perfectly encircled by the darker coffee, the design on a "traditional" cappuccino is called a monk's head.

(Some reputable sources insist the name strikes further back in the annals of pre-espresso history, however, and originates instead from a popular 19th-century Viennese coffee-and-frothed-milk drink called a Kapuziner, the German equivalent of "Capuchin." I say potato, you say patata—and in Vienna, they say Kartoffel.)

Wherever the monk-y moniker originated, what we consider the modern cappuccino—an espresso-based drink topped with steamed foamed milk—didn't appear until about two decades into the 20th century, when espresso-machine manufacturers started adding steam wands to their equipment, allowing baristas to heat and texturize milk as a complement to the concentrated coffee. (Earlier versions of the gadgets featured valves the barista could use to release short bursts of steam pressure for safety's sake, but heating milk with the volatile vapor hadn't entered the equation yet.)

Curious visitors can drop in on the bygone Italian brothers at their Roman catacombs, in a cavern underneath Santa Maria della Concezione dei Cappuccini. There, more than 4,000 clergymen's bones are on rather morbidly beautiful display, thanks to a liturgical law that prohibited underground burial on friary property. (No coffee to be had on premises of course, but in Rome you can't walk five feet without coming across a cafe.)

Next time you thank heavens for your cappuccino, just think—somebody up there might actually be listening.


Italian Food Glossary

Yes, you should buy an Italian dictionary, but until then please see our list of important Italian
culinary terms. After all, you need to understand what you are eating!

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Abboccato A slightly sweet wine. The wines of Orvieto most often take this description.

Abbacchio – Milk fed lamb lamb in general.

Abbuote – A dish from Molise of baked involtini of lamb intestines filled with sweetbreads, hard-boiled eggs and liver.

Abruzzese, all’ – Any dish prepared “in the style of Abruzzo,” such dishes usually contain hot chili peppers called diavolicchio, which are characteristic of the region.

Accarrexiau – A lavish dish of Sardinia in which a whole sheep is stuffed with a suckling pig and roasted over a pit of hot stones.

Acceglio -Cow’s milk cheese from Piedmont. It is a summer cheese and slightly tangy.

Acciuga pl. acciughe – Anchovies

Accosciare – To truss meat or poultry for roasting on a spit or grilling.

Acerbo – Sour unripe harsh.

Aceto balsamico – Balsamic vinegar the best quality is called “aceto balsamico tradizionale.”

Acido – Sour acidic sharp-tasting.

Acqua – Water acqua minerale is mineral water.

Acqua di Fiora d’Arancia – Orange blossom water used mostly in pastries and desserts.

Acqua Minerale – Bottled mineral water, either sparkling (gassata or frizzante) or flat (naturale).

Acquacotta – Vegetable soup usually spiced with peppers and thickened with bread, sometimes containing egg and cheese.

Affettati – Cold cuts, sliced meats.

Affumicato – Smoked.

Africani – Crisp Tuscan cookies with a dark brown exterior.

Afrodisiaci – Foods said to possess an aphrodisiac quality, like caviar, truffles, and oysters — usually very expensive foods served on romantic occasions.

Agglassato – Sicilian dish of braised beef.

Agliata, all’ – Any dish or condiment made with crushed garlic, bread and vinegar.

Aglio – Garlic aglio e olio, literally, garlic and (olive) oil a quick sauce for spaghetti of olive oil and sautèed garlic, sometimes with peperoncino and/or parsley.

Aglio rosso di Sulmona – One of the best and most unusual varieties of garlic in Italy. It is known for its large head and light-red membrane, which covers its cloves.

Agnello – Lamb.

Agnolotti – Ravioli like pasta usually filled with meat.

Agone – Fresh water shad, the best of which come from Lake Como (Lombardy). It can be cooked or marinated, and is often pickled and placed in a barrel.

Agresto – Unfermented juice of wine grapes, used as a condiment.

Agretto – Grassy spring vegetable of northern Italy.

Agro, all’ – With olive oil and lemon.

Agrodolce – “Sour-sweet.” Any dish or condiment based on sugar and vinegar, often used as a marinade.

Agrumi – Citrus fruits.

Aguglia – Needlefish, usually grilled or stewed.

Ai ferri – Any food cooked over an open fire.

Al dente – “To the tooth,” referring to the tender but firm texture of cooked pasta. This “just-right” texture maintains the most flavor within the pasta itself, which is as important as any sauce added.

Al forno – Any food baked in an oven.

Al fresco – Outdoors, referring to a meal taken outdoors.

Alaccia Africana – Sardine-like fish of the Mediterranean, usually grilled or marinated.

Alalunga – Albacore tuna, which is cooked in the same way as tuna (tonno), often canned either in olive oil or water. Mostly found in Sicilian waters.

Albanesi – Ring-shaped cookies made with wine and olive oil.

Albesi al Barolo – Piedmontese cookies made with chocolate hazelnuts and Barolo wine.

Albicocca – Apricot, not widely cultivated in Italy.

Alborella – A small whitefish of the northern Italian lakes, usually grilled.

Alchermes – A red-colored liqueur made from flowers and spices, traditionally used to make zuppa inglese.

Alcool – General term for alcohol, potable or otherwise. It is usually stated by percent of volume.

Alfabeto – Small pasta shaped like alphabet letters.

Alici – Anchovies, often served fresh.

Alimentare – A general term referring to food, i.e. negozio alimentare, meaning grocery store.

Allodola – Lark, a game bird, not common at the table when served, it is usually grilled and, because of its small size, eaten with the fingers.

Alloro, foglia di – Bay leaf.

Alosa – Shad.

Alzavola – Teal, a wild duck, usually roasted.

Amabile – Semisweet, usually in reference to a wine, most often one that is sparkling.

Amarena – Sour cherry, usually steeped in alcohol or syrup, used mostly in desserts.

Amaretti – Almond macaroons. At Christmastime they are traditionally grated and combined with cheese as a stuffing for ravioli.

Amaretto – Any food or drink that is almond flavored.

Amaro – Bitter.

Amatriciana – All’ (for pasta) with tomatoes, pecorino and guanciale..

Ammogghio – Sicilian mixed topping of herbs, garlic and olive oil for fish.

Amore polenta – Cornmeal cake typical of Varese, usually made with maraschino liqueur.

Amoretti – Tiny pasta specks cooked in broth.

Ananas – Pineapple.

Anatra col pien – Venetian stuffed duck.

Anchellini – Sicilian ravioli stuffed with meat and fried.

Aneto – Dill, not a popular herb in Italy.

Anguilla– Eel.

Anguria – Watermelon.

Anice – Anise.

Animelle – Sweetbreads, from the thymus glands of a calf, usually sautéed or grilled, often chopped up and used in pastas as a filling.

Anitra – Duck, also anatra. The wild variety, masaro, is preferred for its flavor, but domestic ducks are raised as a market variety. Ducks are stewed, roasted, or braised, the breasts often grilled or sautéed.

Annata – Wine vintage year.

Anolini – Small ravioli, commonly served in broth.

Anolino – Native to Parma and the surrounding area, this pasta is filled with bread crumbs soaked in dense meat gravy. Eggs and grated cheese are also added as filling. The pasta is cooked and served in a beef broth. – Appetizer, appetizer course served before the Primo, or pasta course: prosciutto, salami, cheese, roasted or grilled vegetables.

Aperitivo – Aperitif, which in Italy may be a simple glass of wine, a cordial or bitter amaro, or an American-style cocktail, such as a Martini, Negroni, Bellini or Americano, served before the meal.

Apparecchio – A kitchen appliance such as a blender or coffee grinder.

Appassire – To sauté vegetables.

Appiattire – A flat plate or the preparation of a meat by flattening it with a kitchen mallet.

Apribottiglia – Bottle opener (not a corkscrew).

Arachide – Peanut, eaten principally as a snack.

Aragosta – Clawless lobster rock lobster (langouste).

Arancia – Orange (the fruit).

Aranciata – Orange drink, orange soda.

Arancini – The name means little oranges, but these are actually deep-fried Rice balls from Sicily. Arancini are popular around central and southern Italy, especially Naples and Rome.

Arbufas – Sardinian raisin gingerbread.

Arca di Noè – “Noah’s Ark.” A mollusk, usually eaten raw.

Aringa – Herring.

Arista – Boneless pork roast, traditionally roasted on a spit with rosemary, thyme, and garlic.

Armelin – Apricot.

Aromi – General term for herbs like rosemary, thyme, basil, and bay leaves.

Arrabiata, all’ – “Angry style.” A pasta sauce made with peperoncino, tomato, and guanciale or pancetta. It is a specialty of Abruzzo and Molise.

Arrosto – Roast, normally meat cooked in an oven or on a spit or grill.

Arrosticini – Skewers of roast sheep meat.

Arsella – Small wedge shell clam, usually consumed on the half shell, raw.

Arsumà – Wine-flavored egg custard, from Piedmont.

Arugula – See rucola.

Asiago – Sharp cow’s milk cheese of the Veneto, named after the area of Asiago in which it is made. Many varieties of Asiago are produced, from fresh and soft to firm and aged.

Asino, Asina – Donkey.

Asparagi – Asparagus Asparagi selvatici – wild asparagus.

Asparagi di Altedo – A green, slightly bitter asparagus from Altedo, in Emilia-Romagna.

Asparagi di Bassano – Considered the best asparagus in Italy. This asparagus from the Venetian town of Bassano del Grappa is thick, white, and juicy with a slightly bitter flavor.

Asprigno – Somewhat tart or sour.

Assaggio – A taste Assaggi – little taster or small portions.

Assortito – Assorted foods.

Astaco – Lobster, also astice or aragosta (spiny Mediterranean rock lobster), usually grilled or sautéed, mostly found off the coast of Sardinia.

Attorta – Coiled cake typical of Umbria, made with almonds and lemon.

Avanzi – Leftovers.

Avemarie – “Hail Marys,” short tube-shaped maccheroni.

Azienda Agricola – A farm or estate which produces all or most of the grapes for wine sold under its labels.

Azzurro, pesce – “Blue fish,” including many of the stronger tasting, darker-fleshed fish, such as tonnino, sgombro, aringa, pescespada and acciuga.
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B

Babà – Ring-shaped yeast cake usually soaked in rum, typical of Naples.

Babà al Rhum – A sweet leavened cake soaked in rum syrup.

Babbaluci – Small snails, cooked in garlic or tomato sauce.

Bacaro – Venetian wine shop or wine bar serving an OMBRETA and CICHETI.

Baccalà – Salted, dried codfish, typically found on menus from Veneto.

Baccala’ mantecato – Venetian specialty of boiled STOCCAFISSO beaten with olive oil into a thick cream.

Baccala’ bacala’ – Salt cod, except in the northeast, where it is air-dried stockfish (STOCCAFISSO) and salt cod are known as BERTAGNIN.

Baccalà in zimino – A Tuscan codfish recipe. The codfish is cooked in extra-virgin olive oil with vegetables.

Baccelone – Livornese soft ewe’s milk cheese. It is traditionally accompanied by fava beans.

Baci – “Kisses.” Chocolate-hazelnut candies, a specialty of the Perugina Company.

Baci di dama – “Lady’s kisses,” chocolate-covered almond cookies, from Piedmont.

Baggiano – Fava beans shelled and cooked fresh or dried and reconstituted in water.

Bagna cauda – “Hot sauce.” Piedmontese dipping sauce made with anchovies and garlic, usually served warm. When almost finished the leftover oil is used to cook eggs.

Bagnèt – A sauce used to accompany bollito misto. Red and green versions are common.

Bagnomaria – Double boiler. A technique used to heat food or leftovers.

Bagnum – Fresh anchovies cooked in tomato sauce, a specialty of Liguria.

Bagoss – Lombardian hard grating cheese.

Baicoli – “Little jokes,” orange-flavored Veneto cookies, traditionally dipped in red wine.

Ballotte – Chestnuts boiled and flavored with fennel or bay leaves.

Balsamico – Balsamic vinegar, the best coming traditionally from Modena. It is made from a cooked grape must known as saba, then aged for several years, with some vinegars dating back a century or more. The finest have a DOC. designation, with the oldest, extra vecchio, being a minimum of twenty-five years old. Younger commercial versions, made outside of Modena, are widely sold. Once considered a rare gift for close friends and a form of concentrated medicine, balsamic vinegar is now used as a salad dressing, sauce flavoring, and condiment.

Bamborino – Beef flank.

Bambuzene di Santa Caterina – “St. Catherine’s dolls,” Ravenna cookie shaped like dolls.

Banana – Banana, a fruit only imported into Italy since the end of World War II.

Bandiera, la – Apulian dish made with arugula and basil, potatoes and pasta, and tomato — symbolizing the three colors of the Italian flag (green, white, red) also knows as il tricolore.

Bar – Italian version of a coffee shop.

Barba di frate – “Monk’s beard,” a wild bitter grass, used as a salad green.

Barbabietola – Beets.

Barbagliata – Espresso coffee mixed with cocoa.

Basilico – Basil.

Bastarduno – Smyra fig or prickly pear.

Batsoà – “Silk stockings,” a Piedmontese dish of pig’s feet in batter, fried in butter.

Batticarne – Meat pounder.

Bauernbrot – Alto-Adige brown rye bread, similar to those in Austria and Germany.

Bauletta – Small Mantuan bread roll or a cheese-and-ham stuffed ravioli from Friuli.

Bava, alla – Any dish in which cheese is melted into thin strands.

Bavarese – Bavarian cream, a cold egg custard, which may or may not have originated in Bavaria. It can be molded and chilled, then decorated with fruit.

Bavette, Bavettine – Pasta similar to Linguine.

Bavosa – Blenny fish, usually cooked in soups.

Beccaccia – Woodcock, a small game bird, usually roasted or grilled.

Beccaccino – Snipe, a small game bird, which requires barding with fat to make flavorful before grilling.

Beccafico – Warbler, a game bird. Also, a Sicilian stuffed eggplant dish.

Bel Paese – “Beautiful Country.” A soft, mild Lombardian cow’s milk cheese created in 1929 and named after a beloved children’s book.

Ben cotto – Well done.

Bensone – Lemon-flavored sponge cake, from Modena.

Bere – To drink.

Bergamotto – Bergamot, a citrus fruit similar to an orange, usually made into marmalade.

Berlingozzo – Ring cake flavored with anise, from Piedmont.

Bertagnin – Salt cod.

Besciamella – A rich sauce made from flour, butter and milk. It is used as a layering sauce in lasagna, as well as a pasta sauce or dressing for vegetables.

Bevenda – General term for beverage or drink.

Bevande – Beverages, drinks.

Bianchetti – Anchovy or whitefish spawn, usually boiled or fried.

Bianchi di spagna – Large white kidney beans.

Bianco d’uovo – Egg white, used in making fluffy desserts.

Biancomangiare – Jellied white custard, flavored with pistachios and almonds.

Bibita, pl.bibite – Beverage, drink.

Bicchiere – Drinking glass.

Bicchierino – Paper cup for ice cream.

Bicerine – Piedmontese beverage made with chocolate, coffee and milk.

Bietola – Swiss chard.

Biga – Bread starter.

Bigio – Bread loaf made with both white and whole wheat flours.

Bignè – Pastry puff or fritter, often filled with sweet creams, sometimes with cheese.

Bigoli – Thick spaghetti made with whole wheat or buckwheat flour.

Biova – Piedmontese lard bread.

Biraldo – Fresh blood sausage.

Biroldo – A type of Tuscan sausage with raisins and pine nuts.

Birra – Beer.

Birra rossa or scura – Dark beer.

Birra chiara – Light beer.

Birreria – Brewery.

Bisato – Venetian dialect for eel.

Biscotti – Generic term for cookies.

Bistecca – Beef steak (though the term also applies to veal or pork chop), the best known version being bistecca alla fiorentina, a very thick, well-aged T-bone (lombata) rubbed with olive oil and cooked over charcoal.

Bitto – Soft cow’s milk cheese, from Valtellina (Lombardy). When aged it is intended for grating.

Blanc manger – A dish common to Val d’Aosta consisting of ground almonds, almond milk, melted lard, and sugar. Older versions tended to be more savory, with the inclusion of chicken.

Blau forelle – Blue trout, usually cooked in white wine and vinegar, which reacts chemically with the fish’s skin to color it blue. Typical of Trentino Alto Adige.

Bobici – Friulian bean, potato, corn and ham soup.

Bocca di dama – “Lady’s mouth,” sponge cake.

Bocca d’oro – “Golden mouth,” croaker fish.

Bocca nera – “Black mouth,” dogfish.

Bocconcino – Any bite-sized food, as the word simply means “little mouthful” most often used for stewed veal little fried rolls or balls of veal, ham, and cheese small balls of mozzarella.

Boero – Liqueur-filled chocolate candy with a cherry center.

Boga – Bogue fish, usually grilled or prepared with tomato sauce.

Bollicine – Bubbles, perlage.

Bollito – Boiled.

Bollito misto – “Mixed boil.” A dish of boiled meats and vegetables in broth, often served with a salsa verde of basil, olive oil, garlic and walnuts. Although a homestyle dish, this can be a very elaborate one in a ristorante. In Piedmont the gran bui is served from a rolling cart, with the broth ladled onto the plate..

Bolognese, alla Outside Bologna, and especially outside Italy, the term designates a substantial meat sauce for pasta in Bologna the sauce is known simply as a ragu.

Bolzanese – Fruit and nut buns, from Bolzano.

Bombixeddas – Sardinian meatballs, usually made with lamb.

Bombo di riso – A casserole of squib, chicken, and onions cooked in rice with tomato and white wine.

Bomboloni – Yeast doughnuts, often filled with cream or chocolate.

Bonèt – Piedmontese chocolate custard.

Bonassai – Sardinian ewe’s milk cheese.

Bongo – Florentine profiterole of puff pastry stuffed with pastry cream.

Bonito – Bonito fish, cooked as a steak on the grill or canned like tuna.

Boraggine – Borage whose flowers are used in salads.

Bordatino – Tuscan soup with corn flour, beans, vegetables, and (sometimes) fish.

Borlanda – Cabbage and vegetable soup, from Piedmont.

Borlengo – Large Emilia-Romagna savory crêpes.

Borlotti – Red and white beans, stewed or served as a side dish with olive oil and garlic.

Boscaiola, alla – “Woodsman’s style.” Pasta sauce made with wild mushrooms, tomato and fried eggplant.

Bosco – Woods wild misto di bosco, mixed berries.

Bosega – Gray mullet, whose dried roe sac is used to make bottarga.

Bottagio – A dish of goose braised with savoy cabbage a specialty of Piacenza and of the Santa Lucia celebration (December 13).

Bottarga – Dried roe sac of gray mullet or tuna. It is sliced very thin or grated and used in salads and on pasta.

Botte – Barrel.

Bottega – Shop.

Bottiglia – Bottle.

Bovolo – Snail.

Bra – Strong Piedmontese cow’s milk cheese.

Brace, alla – Grilled over an open fire or coals.

Braciola – Chop of cutlet, usually pork but also lamb, beef, or game (and even fish).

Bramata – A fine cornmeal used in polenta.

Brandacujon – Ligurian stew made with stockfish, potatoes and olive oil.

Branzi – Cow’s and goat’s milk cheese from Bergamo.

Branzino – Sea bass, a prized, firm-fleshed fish that is grilled, roasted, or baked. It is often served cold.

Brasato – Braised beef or pot roast , often al Barolo, which is red wine.

Bresaola – Air-dried filet of beef from Valtellina (Lombardy). As an appetizer it is sliced very thin and served with lemon and olive oil.

Brigidini – Tuscan anise-flavored wafers.

Brioche – Not usually the French brioche, but generically breakfast pastries pronounced as in French, Brioche is called also cornetto, because of its shape.

Broccolo – Broccoli, also broccoletti, usually boiled or steamed, sautéed in olive oil and garlic or served cold with olive oil and lemon.

Brodetto – A general term for any fish soup or chowder.

Brodo –Broth.

Brovada – Turnips marinated with grape pomace and cured.

Bruglione – Tuscan sautéed dish of mushrooms, garlic and potatoes.

Bruscandoli – Wild greens, used in salads or as a sautéed vegetable.

Bruschetta – Toasted bread rubbed with garlic and drizzled with olive oil, sometimes with the addition of tomatoes or other toppings.

Brustolini, Bruscolini – Toasted zucca (squash) seeds.

Brut – Dry (sparkling wine).

Brutti ma buone – “Ugly but good,” dry cookies made with hazelnuts and egg whites.

Bruz – Leftover pieces of goat cheese are mixed and sealed in pots with brandy, olive oil, chili, vinegar, salt, and peppercorns to create this spicy cheese dish.

Bucatini – Long thick spaghetti with a small hole, almost always served all’ Amatriciana or alla Gricia.

Buccellato – Tuscan raisin-anise cake.

Buco – “Hole” or “small space,” a term is used in Tuscany to refer to a typical cellar trattoria.

Buddaci – Comber fish, usually cooked in soup.

Budella – Intestines, especially that of lamb. The whole intestines, or chitterlings, may be grilled, while the casings are used to make sausage.

Budino – Pudding, both savory and sweet.

Bufalo, Bufala – Water buffalo, the meat of which is eaten in some southern areas and whose milk is used for mozzarella.

Buglione – “Mess.” A peasant stew made with meat poultry and vegetables used to make broth, sautéed in oil and garlic with chopped celery and carrots.

Buon appetito – “Good appetite,” a salutation with which to begin a meal.

Burrata – Made from mozzarella and cream, this cheese has a semi-hard outer shell and a soft inside because of its unique texture, it is usually served fresh.

Burridda – A fish stew, usually made with the regional species of seafood like angler, cuttlefish and anchovies in Genoa.

Burrino – Small cow’s milk cheese, pear-shaped and typical of the southern regions of Italy.

Burro – Butter pasta al Burro has only sweet butter and Parmesan cheese.

Busecchino – Lombardian chestnut dessert.

Bussolai – Friulian ring-shaped butter cookies.

Bussolano – Lombardian potato-lemon cake.

Butirro – Calabrian caciocavallo cheese with a center of butter.
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C

Cacao – Cocoa, used as both a flavoring for baking and in hot chocolate beverages.

Cacciagione – Game.

Cacciatora, alla – “Hunter’s style,” referring to any dish prepared in a rustic, robust style, usually with mushrooms.

Cacciottu – A sandwich specialty from Sicily made from a roll that is slit, stuffed with salami and cheese, dipped in melted lard and heated through in the oven.

Cacciucco – Livorno fish stew made with tomato broth and five kinds of seafood (squid, cod, shrimp, red mullet and scallops), to correspond to the five “c’s” in the word it is seasoned with garlic, sage and rosemary.

Cacimperio – Turinese cheese and egg yolk fondue.

Cacio – A type of pecorino cheese.

Cacio e pepe – Spaghetti dressed with pecorino cheese and black pepper, a Roman specialty.

Caciocavallo – “Horse cheese.” A firm buffalo or cow’s milk cheese, so called because the globes of cheese resemble a horse’s saddlebags.

Caciofiore – Sardinian soft ewe’s milk cheese.

Cacioricotta – This cheese falls somewhere between caciocavallo and ricotta. It is commonly made with a combination of sheep and cow’s milk.

Caciotta – Campanian soft fresh ewe’s milk whey cheese.

Caffe’ – Generally coffee, but the word used alone means Espresso.

Caglio – Rennet, used as a jelling agent for custards.

Cajettes – Pasta pellets cooked in broth typical of Piedmont.

Calamaro – Squid, very often breaded and fried and served with tomato sauce, but also stewed or grilled and served with olive oil and lemon. The ink of the squid is used as a coloring and flavoring for pastas, risotto, and other dishes. Calamaretti are tiny squid often confused with seppie or cuttlefish.

Caldaia – Cauldron.

Caldarroste – Chestnuts roasted over open coals.

Caldo – Hot.

Calice – Wineglass.

Calza – Cheesecloth.

Calzagatti – “Cat’s stockings,” an Emilia-Romagna polenta dish with tomatoes, onions, and beans

Calzone – Half-moon pastries stuffed with cheese and meats or vegetables, folded and sealed, and then baked in a pizza oven. The dough is very similar to the one used for pizza.

Cameriere – Waiter, steward

Cameriera – maid, waitress.

Camomilla – Chamomile, chamomile tea.

Camoscio – Young deer meat, usually cooked as a stew.

Canarini – Small artichokes (Venice).

Candelaus – Sardinian almond-paste cookies.

Canditi – Candied fruit.

Candito – Any foods that are candied, either by cooking in sugar syrup or being rolled in sugar.

Canederli – Trentino dumplings made with bread, eggs, flour, milk, onion, spices and the region’s specialty speck.

Canestrato – Originally a southern cheese made with ewe’s milk and pressed into a wicker basket. Today the term is generally used to refer to any cheese made with the same technique.

Canestrelli – “Small baskets”, ring-shaped sweet biscuits from the region of Liguria.

Canestrello – Pilgrim scallop, usually fried.

Cannariculi – Calabrian honey fritters.

Cannella – Cinnamon.

Cannellini – Elongated white beans very pale light white wine of the CASTELLI ROMANI

Cannelloni – Pasta tubes, similar to manicotti, stuffed with meat and cheese. They take a variety of sauces like tomato or pesto.

Cannoli – Crisp pastry tubes filled with pastry cream, a Sicilian specialty.

Cansonsei – Sausage ravioli, typical of the North, usually dressed with butter and Parmigiano Reggiano.

Cantalupo – Canteloupe melon.

Cantina – Wine cellar or winery.

Cantucci – Tuscan almond cookies, usually served with a glass of vin santo.

Capelli d’angelo – “Angel hair,” very thin spaghetti, usually served with a very light sauce of tomato or vegetables.

Capieddi ‘e preti – “Priest’s hairs,” very thin, curly Calabrian pasta.

Capitone – Large saltwater eel, grilled or stewed with tomato.

Capocollo – A cured meat consisting of the neck and shoulder of pork. It is cured for up to one year. Regional variations use different methods of spicing, aging, and smoking.

Capon magro – Not a caper but a Ligurian layered seafood dish with several kinds of fish and seafood, vegetables, hard-boiled eggs and crackers.

Caponèt – Small stuffed cabbage or zucchini of Piedmont.

Caponata – Sicilian vegetable dish made with eggplant, tomatoes, peppers, chili peppers, vinegar and onions.

Cappalunga – Razor clam.

Cappa santa – “Holy cloak.” Sea scallop, usually lightly sautéed or grilled. Can also be marinated or eaten raw.

Cappellaci – Large, flat ravioli, usually stuffed with pumpkin or squash.

Cappelletti – Small stuffed pasta shaped like small “hats.”

Capperi – Capers, both brined and fresh, used as a flavoring in many dishes, especially cold antipasti.

Cappesante, Capasante – Scallops.

Cappone – Rooster, castrated to heighten flavor of meat, whose age determines that it be boiled or braised or stewed, though it is sometimes cooked on a spit.

CappuccinoEspresso topped with foamed, steamed milk, usually consumed at breakfast.

Cappucci guarniti – Istrian pork and sauerkraut dish.

Capra – Goat.

Caprese, alla – “Capri-style,” usually referring to a lightly cooked sauce of tomatoes, basil, olive oil and mozzarella. Insalata alla caprese is a fresh salad made with the same four ingredients, often served as an antipasto.

Caprese Insalata – Mozzarella and tomato salad with basil .

Capretto – Kid, a young goat 1 1/2 to 4 months old, usually roasted.

Capricciosa, alla – “Capricious style,” referring to any dish prepared at the whimsy of the cook.

Capricciosa pizza – Pizza topped with various ingredients, supposedly chosen at whim but which usually include artichoke hearts, prosciutto, and mushrooms.

Caprino – Fresh goat’s cheese.

Capriolo – Roe deer venison.

Carabacia – Tuscan onion soup.

Caraffa – Carafe.

Caramello – Caramel or other candy caramellizzato caramelized or glazed.

Carbonade – Beef stew cooked in red wine.

Carbonara, alla – “Charcoal style,” a Roman pasta specialty comprising of a sauce of beaten eggs, grana, pecorino, and pancetta that is cooked directly by the heat of the spaghetti.

Carciofo – Artichoke, widely used vegetable, baked, stuffed with breadcrumbs and seasonings, marinated and served cold, and cooked in stews. Carciofi alla giudea (“Jewish style”) are baby artichokes that are fried crisp.

Carciofini – Small artichokes or artichokes hearts, often marinated in olive oil.

Cardi – Cardoons.

Carne – Meat, carne macinata, ground meat.

Carote – Carrots.

Carpa – Carp, a freshwater fish at its best in winter. Small carp may be fried.

Carpaccio – originally thin-sliced raw beef with mayonnaise dressing, invented and named at Harry’s Bar in Venice now used for thin-sliced raw (or sometimes smoked) fish or other meats.

Carpione – A kind of trout, fried and then marinated in vinegar, herbs, and spices .

Carre’ – Roast loin (usually veal or pork) or saddle.

Carrello – Food trolley.

Carrettiera, alla – “Trucker’s style,” spaghetti with a sauce of browned parsley, bread crumbs, onions, anchovies, garlic and capers.

Carrozza mozzarella in – Mozzarella between slices of bread, floured, dipped in egg, and fried.

Carta da musica – An extremely thin, crisp Sardinian bread, that looks like thin “music paper.”

Carteddate – Apulian fried ribbons of sweet dough, a regional specialty of Christmas.

Cartoccio, al – usually seafood, steamed “in a bag” of parchment or aluminum foil.

Casa vinicola – Wine house or merchant (commerciante) whose bottlings come mainly from purchased grapes or wines.

Casa, della – A specialty of a restaurant, can be either food or wine.

Casalinga, alla – “Housewife style.” Also alla casereccia, any dish cooked in a homey style or homemade.

Casatiello – Spicy bread served with eggs in a shell shape decoration, it is an Easter specialty of Naples.

Casciotta di Urbino – A DOP cheese produced in Urbino. It is made from sheep’s milk and aged for one 20 to 30 days.

Cascina – Farmhouse, often used for estate.

Casoeûla – A cold weather stew of Milan consisting of Savoy cabbage and pork.

Cassata – Sponge cake filled with ricotta and candied fruit typical of Sicily and eaten during Lent.

Cassoeula – Casserole.

Cassola – Sardinian seafood stew, usually containing Saint Peter’s fish, octopus, and red chili peppers.

Castagnaccio – Chestnut flour, sugar, water, and olive oil are mixed and baked in a round pan to create this Tuscan specialty. Raisins and pine nuts are common additions after baking.

Castagne – Chestnuts, usually roasted over coals, boiled, used as a stuffing, and candied. Marrone is the largest and most prized version..

Castelmagno – Sharp, blue-veined, cow’s milk cheese named after the town where it is made in the region of Piedmont.

Castrato – Mutton.

Castraure – small wild artichokes, most notably of the islands of the Venetian lagoon, available in spring.

Casu marzu – Pungent Sardinian cheese whose name in dialect means “rotten cheese” because of the small black worms allowed to grow in it.

Cavallo, carne di – Horsemeat, also carne equina. Sold exclusively by designated butchers in Italy, the meat is most often stewed or braised.

Cavatappi – Corkscrew, or pasta resembling a corkscrew.

Cavatelli – Apulian or Southern pasta made with ricotta, shaped into small, ridged dumplings and sauced with besciamella or tomato.

Caviale – Caviar.

Cavolata – Pig’s feet and cauliflower soup, from Sardinia.

Cavolfiore – Cauliflower.

Cavoli, cavolini, cavoletti di Bruxelles or Brusselle – Brussels sprouts .

Cavolo – Cabbage, featured in a wide variety of dishes, particularly in the northern regions of Friuli and Alto-Adige, where the cuisine has some influence of the bordering countries of Austria and Germany. Cavolo verza is Savoy cabbage, cavolini di Bruxelles Brussels sprouts.

Cavolo rape – Kohlrabi, not widely eaten in Italy.

Cazmarr – Basilicata stew of lamb offal, prosciutto, and cheese.

Ceca – Young eel, usually grilled.

Ceceniello – Smelt, usually floured and fried.

Ceci – Chickpeas (garbanzo beans).

Cedro – Citron.

Cefaletto – Small squid-like sea creature, usually grilled then served cold in a vinegar marinade.

Cefalo – Grey mullet.

Celestina – Clear consommé containing tiny star-shaped pasta.

Cena – Supper dinner.

Cenci – “Rags”, a dessert from Tuscany made with egg noodles flavored with anise, vanilla, and vin santo, fried in lard and sprinkled with sugar.

Ceneri – Ashes.

Centerbe – A one month-aged digestif from Abruzzo made by infusing as many as one hundred herbs into alcohol and aging for one month.

Ceppetello – Oyster mushrooms, used in salads and as an antipasto.

Cerasuolo – Cherry-hued rosé (wine).

Cereali – General term for grains.

Cerfoglio – Chervil, used as an herb in salads, soups, and stews.

Cernia – Grouper fish, usually boiled or baked, often cut as steaks and grilled.

Certosino – Bolognese Christmas spice cake.

Cervellata – Milanese pork sausage.

Cervello – Brain veal and lamb brains, may be cooked in various ways.

Cervo, carne di – Venison, usually marinated and roasted.

Cesta – Basket, any number of basket-bag lunch, often sold at railroad stations or prepared by hotels on request.

Cetriolo – Cucumber, often marinated in lemon and oil.

Champignon – Cultivated button mushroom.

Cheppia – Twaite shad, usually grilled. It is valued for its abundant roe.

Chiacchiere – Strips of fried or baked pastry dusted with powdered sugar, traditional during Carnevale, known by various names.

Chiara – Egg white, used in desserts and mousses.

Chiaretto – Deep rosé (wine).

Chifel – Tyrolean crescent-shaped roll flavored with cumin seeds and served with sausages and beer.

Chifferi – Half-moon shaped maccheroni.

China – Quinine, used in liqueur called china and to flavor beverages described as chinotto.

ChinulilleRicotta ravioli, fried and sprinkled with sugar icing, typical of Basilicata.

Chiocciole – Snails.

Chiodi di garofano – Cloves, used in spice cakes.

Chiodini – Wild mushrooms found in the woods

Chitara, alla – “Guitar style,” fresh egg pasta typical of Abruzzo that resemble the strings of a guitar.

Ciabatta – “Slipper,” a bread with a slipper-like form and airy texture.

CialdaAntipasto of boiled vegetables with tomato, from Apulia.

Cialzone – Apulian pasta stuffed with various cheeses, potatoes, and herbs.

Ciambotta – Vegetable stew with potatoes, tomatoes, egg plant, onion, and peppers.

Ciapole – Dried tomatoes, peaches or apricots from Piedmont.

Ciaramicola – Umbrian cake flavored with lemon peel and alchermes.

Ciauscolo – Finely ground fatty pork is kneaded until soft, and seasoned with garlic, salt, and pepper. Ciauscolo is then smoked, and meant to be spread onto bread. This spread is native to Marche.

Cibo – Food.

Cibreo – Florentine stew of unlaid chicken eggs, chicken livers, cockscomb and wattles.

Cicala – A species of shrimp.

Ciccioli – Pork cracklings.

Ciceri e tria – Chickpeas cooked with garlic, bay leaves, and onions together with tagliatelle, a specialty of Apuglia.

Cicoria – Chicory or endive, in many varieties cicoria di Bruxelles, Belgian endive.

Ciliege – Cherries.

Cilegia – Cherry, often marinated in sugar syrup or alcohol. Amarene and marasche are bitter varieties.

Cima – Breast of meat, when stuffed it is called cima ripiena.

Cime di rapa Turnip greens, usually boiled and seasoned.

Cinghiale – Wild boar.

Cioccolata – Chocolate.

Cioccolata calda – Hot chocolate beverage.

Cipolla – Onion.

Ciriola – Small Roman bread roll.

Cisrà – Piedmontese soup of carrots, chickpeas, celery, onions and pork rind.

Ciuppin – Genovese fish soup, usually containing a purée of whiting and flounder, as well as tomato, basil and herbs.

Civet – Stew of chamois or hare marinated in red wine, carrots, garlic, onions and juniper berries.

Civraxiu – Sardinian semolina bread typically made into very large round loafs.

Classico – The historic core of a DOC wine production zone.

Coccioca – Red gurnard, usually baked, roasted, grilled or fried.

Cocciola – Cockle.

Cocco, noce di cocco – Coconut.

Coda alla vaccinara – Oxtail, grilled or roasted, a Roman specialty often stuffed into pastas or used as the basis for a meat sauce.

Coda di pesce – Isinglass, made from the dried bladder of fish and used as a gelatin.

Colapasta – Colander.

Colazione – Sometimes lunch but usually breakfast, which is correctly prima colazione.

Colomba Pasquale – Dove-shaped cake originally from Milan, a popular specialty of Easter.

Colombo – Dove, usually roasted or grilled.

Coltello – Knife.

Comino – Cumin, used as a ground spice for stews and desserts.

Composta di frutta – Stewed fruit, served as a dessert.

Conchiglie – Generic term for hard-shelled mollusks (clams, mussels, scallops, etc.) conchiglia di San Giacomo pilgrim scallop, also known as cappasanta or ventaglio. It is also the name of a shell-shaped type of pasta.

Concia – Marinade.

Condiggione – Ligurian salad with cardoons, cucumbers, tomatoes and olive oil.

Condimenti – Condiments, from condire (to season or dress) the term covers a vast range of sauces and flavorings.

Confetteria – Sweet confection.

Confetti – Sugar-coated almonds, a specialty of Abruzzo. Today they are widely used in Italy for celebrations such as wedding and christenings.

Confettura – Jam, also called marmellata, which originally meant citrus fruit marmalade.

Coniglio – Rabbit, served roasted, grilled, or stewed.

Cono – Cone, for ice cream and pastries.

Conserve – Preserves, usually referring to fruits.

Consorzio – Consortium of producers.

Conto – Restaurant bill.

Contorno – Side dish or garnish, usually vegetables or salad, to complement the main course.

Controfiletto – Sirloin steak.

Coperto – Cover charge at a restaurant for bread, glassware and linens.

Coppa – Pressed, cooked, boneless pork neck. Also named capocollo in Southern Italy.

Coppa gelato – A cup of gelato.

Coppa piacentina – Coppa made in the city of Piacenza. The climate of the area combined with a six month maturation process gives this specialty its unique character.

Corada – Calf’s lung, stewed or made into soup.

Corallo – Coral and shellfish roe.

Corata – Offal of lamb.

Coregono – Salmon trout, usually grilled or roasted.

Coriandolo – Coriander, an herb used as a seasoning, often freshly cut on top of a stew.

Cornetti – Croissant pastries, usually eaten at breakfast, most often in a bar, coffee shop.

Corvo – Either the corvine fish or the croaker fish, usually fried.

Corzetti – Ligurian pasta shaped into coin-like rounds and embossed with a pattern much like a coin.

Coscia – Thigh of meat or poultry.

Cosciotto – Leg of meat.

Costa – Chop of meat.

Costardello – Skipper fish, usually fried or salted.

Costata – Rib steak of beef or veal, also called tagliata.

Costoletta – Cutlet or chop of pork, lamb or veal, synonymous with cotoletta, the popular term for breaded veal cutlet.

Cotechino – Large fresh pork sausage from Modena, traditionally containing rind or cotica, hence the name. Commonly served with lentils, it is a favorite winter dish.

Cotica – Pork turf or rind.

Cotognata – A pureé of quince is mixed with sugar and cooked until it obtains a clear, rosy color. Cotognata is then rolled into crystallized sugar. The Italian sweet is similar to Turkish Delight.

Cotoletta – Cutlet (veal unless otherwise specified) usually breaded and fried, though geographic attributions indicate a variety of preparations. See also COSTOLETTA.

Cotta a puntino – “Cooked to the point.” Medium, referring to the degree of doneness for meat.

Cotto – Cooked.

Covaccine – Very thin pizzas topped with salt and olive oil, typical of Tuscany.

Cozze – Mussels, consumed raw but more often steamed or stewed with white wine and tomato also called mitili, muscioli, muscoli, and peoci.

Cozzolo – Stargazer fish, usually fried.

Cozzuledda – Doughnut shaped Sardinian stuffed pastries.

Cranu pestatu – Apulian dish of pounded wheat berries and wild greens.

Crauti – Sauerkraut, consumed mostly in northern Italy along the Austrian border.

Crema – Pastry cream or other viscous substance, also custard, cream soup dairy cream is panna.

Crema Inglese – “English cream,” a rich egg custard used as a sauce for desserts.

Crema pasticcera – Pastry cream.

Cremoso – Creamy or thick, as opposed to liquid or runny.

Cren – Horseradish, consumed mostly in northern Italy as a condiment.

Crescente – Yeast starter.

Crescenza – Soft, creamy fresh cow’s milk cheese from Lombardy.

Crescione – Cress crescione d’acqua watercress.

Crespelle – Crêpes, sometimes sweet but usually served with fillings or sauces like pasta.

Croccante – “Crispy.” Pralines, candy made from sugared hazelnuts.

Crochetta – Croquette.

Crosta – Crust crostata fruit tart crostino crouton or toast with a spread.

Crostacei – General term for crustaceans, such as shrimp, lobster, crabs.

Crostata – Open-faced tart, either sweet or savory.

Crostini – Toasted bread, usually with a savory topping.

Crudo – Uncooked, general term referring to any raw food or fish.

Cucchiaio – Spoon.

Cucina – Kitchen stove, range cuisine, style of cooking.

Cucuzza – Sicilian term for squash.

Cugnà – A more complex Piedmontese version of cotognata. The recipe includes additions of grape must, walnuts and fruit.

Culatello – Cured pork rump, sliced and eaten as an antipasto.

Culurzones – Large Sardinian ravioli stuffed with cheese, egg, spinach, mint and saffron.

Cuoco – Cook, chef.

Cuore – Heart, such as in Cuore di bue, beef heart.

Cuscus – Couscous.
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D

Dado – Bouillon cube.

Daino – Fallow deer, usually grilled or roasted, often after marinating in red wine.

Dattero – Date, consumed both fresh and dried.

Dattero di mare – “Date of the sea,” a mussel-like mollusk, boiled or grilled.

Delfino – Dolphin, whose meat is usually cut into strips and dried, served as an antipasto in Liguria.

Denti di leone – “Lion’s teeth.” Dandelion greens, boiled or used in salads.

Dentice – West Mediterranean sea bream or red snapper, a fleshy fish best broiled, grilled or roasted.

Desco – Table dining table.

Diavola, alla – “Devil’s style,” referring to hot seasoning or cooking over red hot coals, as with grilled chicken called pollo alla diavola.

Diavolilli – “Little devils.” Sugar coated almonds.

Diavolillo – “Little devil.” Also, diavolicchio. Abruzzese name for local fresh or dried chili pepper.

Digestivo – After dinner drink, such as amaro, grappa or liqueurs, said to aid digestion.

Dindo – Turkey.

Diplomatico – “Diplomatic,” a rum-soaked pound cake or lady fingers cake layered with custard and candied fruits.

Ditali – “Thimbles.” Small, tube-shaped dried pasta. Ditalini are even smaller.

Diti di apostolic – “Apostles’ fingers.” Apulian finger-shaped crêpes filled with sweetened ricotta, cocoa, and liqueur, then dusted with sugar.

Dolce – Sweet dolci cover pastries, cakes and other sweets of the Dolce course , or dessert.

Dolce Torinese – A Turinese rum-soaked chocolate cake with biscuits and almonds.

Dolcelatte – “Sweet milk.” A soft blue-veined cheese similar to Gorgonzola.

Dolcetti – A general term for any small sweet cakes and cookies.

Donzelle – Tuscan fried dough balls.

Dorata – Gilt head, dorade.

Dorato – “Golden,” referring to an ingredient dipped in egg and fried until golden brown.

Dragoncello – Tarragon or estragon, a seasoning herb.

Drogheria – Shop selling both drugs and spices.
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E

Elice Corkscrew-shaped maccheroni.

Elicoidali Fat tube-shaped maccheroni.

Emiliano Emilian granular cheese.

Emmentaler – A world-wide cow’s milk cheese originally produced in Switzerland’s Emme Valley. Emmentaler is commonly used in pasta dishes, polenta, and on pizza.

Enologo Enologist with a university degree enotecnico is a winemaking technician with a diploma.

Enoteca Literally “wine library,” referring to both publicly sponsored displays and privately owned shops, restaurants featuring many wines.

Equino – Equine: horse, donkey, or mule carne equina, horse meat.

Erba cipollina – Chives.

Erbazzone – Emilian savory pie of Swiss chard or spinach, with eggs, pancetta and grana.

Erbe – Herbs erbe aromatiche are scented types, such as basil, rosemary, sage, thyme and parsley erbe selvatiche are wild.

Erbe fini – A mixture of chopped herbs used as a flavoring for stocks and stews.

Ermelline – Bitter almonds.

Escabecio – Seviche, a method of preserving fish by marinating it in white vinegar.

Espresso – Coffee in Italy. A highly concentrated cup of coffee made from well-roasted Arabica beans that are forced through a pressure valve. It may also be made with a drip pot, popular in southern Italy.

Esse di Raveo – Friulian S-shaped cookies.

Estratto – Extract, as of lemon or vanilla.

Etichetta – Label.

Ettaro – Hectare (2.471 acres) the standard measure of vineyard surface in Italy.

Etto – Standard unit of 100 grams.

Ettolitro – Hectoliter, or 100 liters, the standard measure of wine volume in Italy.
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F

Fagianello – Young pheasant.

Fagiano – Pheasant, usually grilled, roasted or stewed.

Fagiolo – Beans, specifically shelled varieties (such as white cannellini or reddish borlotti) cooked freshly shelled (sgranati) or often dried.

Fagiolini – Green (or yellow) beans in their pods, notably string beans, usually boiled and served cold or stewed with tomato, garlic and herbs.

Fagottini – “Little bundles.” Thin pancakes filled with savory and sweet flavors.

Fame – Hunger, appetite

Far sudare – To braise.

Faraona – Guinea fowl or hen, usually roasted or stewed with herbs.

Farcia – Forcemeat, stuffing.

Farcito – Stuffed.

Farfalle – Pasta shaped like butterfly wings, often dressed with a ragù.

Farina – Flour farina gialla, cornmeal (cf.POLENTA).

Farinacei – General term for starch foods.

Farinata – Ligurian chickpea flour pancake.

Farro – Spelt, an ancient grain predecessor of hard wheat, used in soups, breads, polenta.

Farsumagru – Sicilian braised beef or veal rolls filled with hard-boiled eggs, salami and cheese.

Fattoria – Farm or estate.

Fave – Fava beans, usually shelled and boiled or dried and reconstituted in water.

Fazzoletti – “Handkerchiefs,” Ligurian pasta sheets folded and sauced.

Fecola – Starch, like cornstarch.

Fedelini – Long pasta strands served in broth.

Fegato – Liver, usually calf’s most famous served “alla veneziana,” sautèed with onions fegato grasso, foie gras.

Ferro di cavallo – Sicilian horsehoe-shaped bread.

Fesa – Cut of meat from the thigh or rump.

Fetta – Slice or strip, as in fetta di pane, a slice of bread.

Fette, le – Also, cavolo nero, black cabbage.

Fettuccine – Long flat egg pasta strands, 3/8 inch wide.

Fettunta – Toasted or grilled bread rubbed with garlic and olive oil, much like bruschetta.

Fiadone – Abruzzese pizza rustica, rustic pizza, made with cheese and eggs usually for Easter.

Fico – Fig, eaten fresh, stewed, marinated or made into pastries. Fico d’India is the edible fruit of prickly pear cactus.

Fidelanza – Ligurian spaghetti cooked in tomato sauce.

Fieto – Pomfret fish, usually grilled.

Figa’ – Liver figa’ garbo e dolce, liver breaded and fried, with a touch of vinegar and sugar figa’ col radeselo, liver cut up, wrapped in sage leaves, and fried in butter (Venice).

Filetto – Tenderloin, filet mignon.

Fillini – Very fine short strands of pasta used for soups.

Finanziera – Turinese stew of sweetbreads, chicken giblets, mushrooms and truffles.

Finocchio – Fennel, finocchio selvatico.

Finnocchiona – Tuscan salami seasoned with fennel seeds, salt, pepper, and garlic. Finnocchiona is typically aged 7 months to a year.

Fiore – Flower fiori di zucca or zucchini squash flowers, usually battered and fried after being stuffed.

Fior di latte – Mozzarella like cheese, made from cow’s milk .

Fiorentina, alla – “Florentine style,” usually referring to a dish made with or on a bed of spinach.

Fiorentina la – The famous Florentine beefsteak, a thick T-bone from the LOMBATA, ideally from CHIANINA beef, grilled very rare over coals.

Focaccia – Puffy yeast bread baked in a pan. It may be topped or flavored with a variety of herbs like onion, fennel, or rosemary.

Focolare – Open hearth or fire place used for cooking.

Foggiano – A pecorino cheese from the city of Foggia.

Folaga – Coot, usually marinated or grilled.

Fondo – A reduction of onions and vegetables.

Fonduta – Cheese fondue, a mixture of melted cheese (usually Fontina) and wine into which foods like bread and vegetables are dipped, typical of Northern Italy. It may also be used as a sauce for vegetables.

Fongadina – Veneto stew of calf offal seasoned with bay leaves, rosemary, garlic and lemon peel.

Fontana – A mound of flour with a well in it so that it absorbs liquids and eggs.

Fontina – Soft unpasteurized cow’s milk cheese, from Valle d’Aosta.

Forchetta – Fork.

Formagella – Ligurian fresh soft cow’s, goat’s or ewe’s milk cheese lightly ripened.

Formaggio – Cheese.

Fornaio – Baker.

Forno – Oven bakery.

Fra diavolo – “Friar devil,” any dish made with a good amount of coarsely ground black pepper or a good amount of chili peppers, a specialty of Abruzzo. Pollo alla diavola is sprinkled with cracked black pepper, flattened, and grilled.

Fracosta di bue – Rib of beef.

Fragola – Strawberry.

Fragole – Strawberries fragoline di bosco, tiny wild strawberries. Both are served with sugar and lemon juice or with CREMA GELATO, or, much more rarely with balsamic vinegar.

Fragolino – Pandora fish, a sea bream that is good baked, grilled or fried.

Frantoio – Olive press.

Francesina – Breadstick.

Frantoio – Mill where olives are processed for oil. Also olive press.

Frasca – Friulian term for a restaurant located near a winery.

Fratteglie – Offal, innards like liver, kidneys, sweetbreads, and heart.

Freddo – Cold.

Fregamai – Ligurian pasta dumplings whose dough is rubbed through a grater.

Fregola – A large-grained couscous.

Fresco – Fresh.

Friarelli – Tips of broccoletti. In Naples, the term refers to green pickling peppers.

Fricandò – Larded cuts of veal braised in Marsala wine.

Frico – Melted cheese fritter from Friuli.

Friggere – To fry.

Frisceu – Ligurian codfish and vegetable fritters.

Frisedda – Apulian ring-shaped roll made with whole wheat.

Friselle – Twice baked breads that are soaked or sprayed with water for softening before eating.

Frittata – An omelette that has been turned over, not folded in half.

Fritto – Fried. Fritto misto is a “mixed fry” of battered or breaded vegetables, meat or seafood.

Frittura di Paranza – Neapolitan fried fish dish.

Frizzante – Fizzy or faintly fizzy (wine) or mineral water.

Fruata – Sicilian hollow loaf of bread resembling pita.

Frullato – Whipped iced fruit or coffee beverage.

Frusta – Wire whisk.

Frutta – Fruit.

Frutti di bosco – Berries, such as raspberries and strawberries.

Frutti di mare – Shellfish.

Fumetto – Concentrated chicken or beef broth.

Funghetto, al – Sautéed in very hot oil with garlic and parsley.

Funghi – General term for mushrooms. Both cultivated or wild, mostly found in the northern regions. A popular kind is funghi porcini.

Fuori stagione – Out of season.

Fusilli – Corkscrew-shaped pasta.

Fusilli al ferro – Fusilli is rolled and cut into thick squares and wrapped around a thin iron rod. They are rolled into long tubes, great for holding onto tomato or meat sauces.

Fuso – Melted, as butter.
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G

Galantina Galantine, a cold dish covered with aspic.

Galletta Dry biscuit, shaped like a flat bagel.

Gallina Fowl.

Gallinaccio Chanterelle mushroom, sautéed with garlic and oil or sliced fresh over salads.

Gallinella Gurnard fish.

Gallo – Cock, rooster.

Gambero – Name used for various crustaceans, cooked in every conceivable way, from boiled to fried, hot to cold. Gambero rosso and gambero imperiale or mazzancolla are large Mediterranean prawns, also called gamberoni gamberelli are smaller prawns gamberetti tiny shrimp gamberi d’acqua dolce freshwater crayfish.

Garganelli – Romagna pasta dumplings pressed to form grooves on the exterior.

Gassato, gasato – Carbonated.

Gastronomia – Gastronomy, also gourmet food or specialty store. A gastronomo or buongustaio is a gourmet, ghiottone glutton.

Gattò – Southern Italian term referring to cake.

Gattopardo – A Leopard or Leopard fish, a strong-flavored fish usually treated to spices.

Gattuccio – Dogfish, although the Italian translation is “big cat.”

Gazzosa – Lemon-flavored carbonated water.

Gebri – Bundles of wild herbs.

Gelatina – Aspic gelatin.

Gelato – Italian style of ice cream, of wide-ranging flavors, chiefly fruit, nuts and chocolate.

Gelso – Mulberry “Genoa style,” usually with basil, garlic, and oil.

Gerstensuppe – Trentino barley and speck soup.

Ghiaccio – Ice or ice cubes.

Ghineffi di riso – Sicilian fried rice cakes with saffron.

Gianchi e neigro – Ligurian dialect, referring to fried, breaded offal.

Gianduja – Piedmontese chocolate and hazelnut paste used in desserts, ice cream and candies.

Gianfottere – Calabrian eggplant, pepper, zucchini and squash stew.

Giardiniera, alla – Dishes prepared “garden style,” with chopped vegetables and salad greens.

Ginepro – Juniper.

Ginestrata – Tuscan soup made from wild brooms and chicken broth with egg.

Giorno, del – “Today’s special” for a restaurant.

Girarrosto – Roasted on a spit.

Giudea, alla – “Jewish style.” Dishes prepared referring to the traditional cooking of the Italian Jews that lived in the ghettos of 19th century Rome.

Glassa – Pastry icing.

Gniumerieddi – Apulian dish of skewered, grilled sausages of lamb or kid.

Gnocchi – Dumplings from potato and flour or semolina, usually served dressed as a first course Gnocchi verdi are green from spinach mixed with ricotta gnocchetti are smaller.

Gnudi – “Nudies,” spinach and ricotta dumplings without a pasta dough to contain them.

Gobbi – Cardoons.

Gorgonzola – Strong Lombardian blue-veined cow’s milk cheese, made in and around the town of Gorgonzola.

Gramugia – Tuscan fava bean soup.

Gran bollito misto piemontese – A platter of piping hot assorted cuts of meat.

Gran bu – Very lavish Piedmontese bollito misto.

Grana – A general term that describes the grainy texture of certain Italian cheeses, oftentimes used colloquially to refer to Parmigiano-Reggiano or Grana Padano.

Grana padano – A famous Italian cheese of granual texture, aged 1 year to 18 months. Its origins date back to the 12th century. Today, its area of production expands from Piedmont to Veneto, including the province of Trento and some areas of Emilia Romagna.

Granatina – Ground beef, egg and bread shaped as a cutlet and fried.

Granchio – Crab.

Granelli – Veal testicles meatballs.

Granita – Slushy gelato made by freezing liquid (often coffee or lemon juice) into crystals of grainy texture. It is sometimes topped with whipped cream.

Grano – Grain wheat.

Grano saraceno – Buckwheat flour used to prepare polenta and pasta.

Granoturco – Sweet corn.

Grappa – Spirit distilled from pomace of grapes previously crushed for wine usually clear but sometimes amber from wood aging.

Grasso – Fat, including animal fats like lard and suet.

Graticola, alla – Grilled over a charcoal fire with a grating.

Grattugia – Grater.

Gremolata – A condiment of chopped garlic, parsley, lemon, and oil, served on the side of meats, fish and poultry.

Grigette – Small snails.

Griglia – Grill terms for grilling over coals include alla griglia, ai ferri, alla brace grigliata mista mixed grill of meats or seafood.

Grissini – Breadsticks.

Grolla – Multi-spouted coffee pot.

Grongo – Conger eel, usually grilled, stewed or fried.

Guanciale – Salt pork from the cheek or jowl, used as a flavoring in soups, stews, pastas and other dishes.

Guarnito – Garnished.

Guastedde – Sesame-filled roll.

Gubana – A traditional bread filled with cocoa, nuts, candied fruits and grappa. It is an Easter specialty of Friuli.

Gulasch di manzo – Alto Adige goulash of stewed meat and peppers.

Gusto – Flavor (e.g ice cream) taste pleasure.

Guvat – Goby fish, of which only large ones are consumed, usually baked.

I

Imbottigliata Bottled (all’origine implies at the source).

Imbottito – Stuffed.

Impanare – To coat with breadcrumbs.

Impanata – Pastry turnover.

Impanato – Breaded.

Impastare – To knead, as dough.

Incapriata – An Apulian vegetable dish consisting of puréed fava beans and sautéed chicory drizzled with olive oil.

Indivia – Endive invidia riccia and scarola (curly and broad-leafed escarole), invidia belga (Belgian endive, also called insalata belga or cicoria di Bruxelles) see also cicoria, radicchio.

Indiviola – A wild endive.

Indugghia – Calabrian sausage made from the meat, liver, lungs, and lard of pork.

Infarinata – Tuscan vegetable and cornmeal soup.

Insaccato – General term for salami and sausages.

Insalata – Salad, which may or may not include greens. Popular examples are insalata mista (mixed), insalata verde (greens only) insalata russa (mixed cooked vegetables diced with mayonnaise). Insalata di mare is a mix of cold seafood.

Insalata caprese – Sliced tomatoes and mozzarella with fresh basil.

Integrale – Whole wheat.

Invecchiato – Aged, seasoned.

Involtini – Envelopes or rolls of thinly sliced veal, pork or fish cooked with stuffing.

K

Kaiserschmarrn – Native to Trentino-Alto Adige, this dessert consists of strips of crespelle filled with stewed fruit. Kaiserschmarrn is served warm with cream.

Kaminwürzen – Smoked pork sausage native to Trentino-Alto Adige.

Kasher – Kosher.

Knödel – Dumplings from Trentino-Alto Adige that usually accompany stews or hearty meals of meat.

Krapfen – Sweet fritters, typically filled with cream or fruit.
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L

Lagane Pasta strips, usually served with chickpeas.

Lagrumuse Calabrian pork sausage.

Lampascioni Bulbs of wild tassel hyacinth.

Lampone Raspberry, preferred fresh as a dessert (as gelato or sorbetto), but sometimes marinated in sugar syrup.

Lamponi – Raspberries.

Lampreda – Lamprey eel, usually stewed.

Lanzado – Cub mackerel, a strong fish best grilled with herbs.

Lardo – Cured pork fat fatty bacon, lardo rosa di Colonnata, a particulary prized type.

Lardo di Arnad – Cured meat from Arnad. Lardo is the layer of fat directly under a pig’s skin.

Latte fritto – Fried custard dessert.

Lasagna – A layered pasta dish baked, with fresh mozzarella, usually with a besciamella or tomato sauce. There are many varieties of this dish throughout Italy that reflect regional preferences and traditions.

Lasagne Wide strips of egg pasta, used to make layers for lasagna.

Lasca Freshwater fish of Lake Trasimeno, rarely seen at market.

Latte Milk latticini dairy products.

Lattemiele Whipped cream mixed with honey or sugar.

Latterino Sand smelt, usually fried or poached.

Lattonzolo Suckling pig or unweaned calf, best spit-roasted and basted with garlic and rosemary.

Lattuga Lettuce, covering a range of types.

Lattume Fish semen. In Liguria, tuna semen is air-dried, made into slim slices and served with lemon and olive oil.

Lauro – Bay leaf.

Leccarda – A dripping pan specifically used under a roast on a spit.

Leccia – Large silver-gray fish, best grilled or baked.

Leccia stella – Pompano, best grilled or baked.

Legno – Wood forno a legna , wood burning-oven.

Legume – General term for legumes.

Lenticchie – Lentils.

Lepre – Hare.

Lesso – Boiled.

Lievito – Leavener. Lievito di birra, baker’s yeast, commonly used to make pizza. Lievito naturale is a sourdough starter. Lievito in polvere, baking powder.

Limone – Lemon limonata lemonade limetta or limone bergamotto lime, limoncello lemon liqueur.

Limoncello – Lemon liqueur, once associated with seaside resorts and sun-kissed islands, now ubiquitous.

Lingua – Tongue, such as lingua di bue, beef tongue, always boiled, sometimes as part of a bollito misto.

Lingue di gatto – “Cat’s tongues,” thin butter cookies.

Linguine – Flat thin noodles, mostly popular in Southern Italy linguine alle vongole, with a red or white clam sauce.

Lucanica – Very popular pork sausage originally created in Basilicata.

Lupo di mare – Lobster.

Liquirizia – Licorice, used in candies and pastries.

Liquori – Liqueurs the term covers the range of distilled spirits, such as grappa and brandy, and compositions, such as amaro, limoncello and sambuca.

Liquoroso – Strong wine, sometimes fortified but usually of naturally high alcoholic grade.

Lista del vivande – Menu of a restaurant. Also menú, more commonly used.

Litro – Liter.

Locanda – Inn, ancient term for a simple place with rooms, often serving meals today synonymous with osteria or trattoria (see).

Lombata – Loin.

Lonza – Cured pork tenderloin.

Luccio marino – Barracuda, usually poached.

Luganega – Slender pork sausage, a specialty of Lombardy.

Lumache – Snails, usually quite small and cooked in tomato sauce.

Luppoli – Hops, used to make beer.

M

Macca – Soup made with fava beans, chili peppers, onions, tomatoes, and spaghetti.

Maccarello – Mackerel.

Maccheroni – Macaroni in parts of southern Italy this is a generic term for dried pasta, though elsewhere it usually refers to short pasta tubes like rigatoni and ziti.

Macedonia di Frutta – Fruit salad.

Macelleria – Butcher shop, macellaio butcher.

Macinapepe – Pepper mill.

Macinare – To grind or crush food.

Macinato – Ground minced.

Macis – Mace, a spice most often used for cookies and cakes.

Madia – Wooden trough for bread making.

Mafalda – Sicilian braided bread made with semolina flour.

Maggiorana – Marjoram.

Magro – Lean, as in carne magra, lean meat.

Maiale – Pork maialino da latte – suckling pig cf. PORCHETTA.

Maiocchino – Sicilian ewes’ milk cheese, often made with black peppercorns, and pressed into basket molds.

Maionese – Mayonnaise.

Mais – Corn, sweet corn fiocchi di mais, cornflakes.

Malaga – Rum raisin flavor.

Malfatti – A type of gnocchi.

Malloreddus – “Small bulls.” Tiny Sardinian gnocchi made from semolina, saffron and shaped into small ridged dumplings with a slit down the center.

Maltagliati – Diamond-shaped, flat pasta of Mantua and the Veneto region.

Malto – Malt extract.

Mandarino – Mandarin, a tangerine like the larger mandarancio and smaller clementina.

Mandolino – Slicing utensil for vegetables, usually with several blades.

Mandorle – Almonds mandorla amara, bitter almond.

Manfrigoli – Umbrian dish of pasta, garlic and tomatoes.

Mangiatutto – Snow peas, also a thin asparagus.

Maniche – “Sleeves.” Short tube maccheroni.

Manicotti – Large tube maccheroni stuffed with ricotta cheese and ham and baked.

Manini – Ferrarese bread shaped like crossed hands.

Manteca – Basilicata cheese with a center of butter.

Mantecato – Ingredients pounded into a form of paste. Also, a general term referring to a common technique to sautée pasta in a skillet with a bit of its sauce and grana.

Manzo – Beef from adult male or female cattle.

Maracuja – Passion fruit.

Marasca – Morello cherry used to make maraschino liqueur.

Margarina – Margarine.

Mariconda, la – Lombardian soup of dumplings made from breadcrumbs, egg, nutmeg, butter and cheese, usually served in a meat stock.

Marille – Short, ridged maccheroni joined side by side to form a double-barrel shape.

Marinara, alla – “Mariner’s style.” A quickly made sauce usually containing fresh crushed tomatoes, garlic, oregano and olive oil.

Marinata – Marinade.

Maritozzo – Roman raisin buns, traditionally made during Lent.

Marmellata – Marmalade.

Marmitta Torinese – Turinese soup of vegetables, potatoes, basil, onion and garlic, served over a slice of bread.

Marmora – Striped bream, best grilled or roasted.

Marro – Abruzzese dish of lamb’s intestines flavored with garlic, rosemary and pancetta.

Marrone – Chestnut.

Martin sec – Valle d’Aosta late-ripening pear, commonly cooked in red wine.

Marubini – Scalloped stuffed pasta rounds, a specialty of Cremona.

Marzapane – Marzipan, sweet almond paste, used in pastries also called pasta reale.

Marzolino – Tuscan and Latium cheese similar to pecorino.

Marzotica – Aged ricotta, produced in early spring.

Masaro alla Valesana – Venetian dish of wild duck marinated in vinegar, thyme and tarragon, barded with bacon, baked, cut into pieces and sautéed with butter, wine, anchovies, onions and capers.

Mascarpone – A fresh, soft cream cheese, close to butter unsweetened it may be used in pasta or risotto, sweetened with fruit or desserts. It is the basis for the dessert tiramisu.

Mastrich – Lombardian mixture of mascarpone, egg yolks, sugar, rum, grated lemon peel and olive oil, served chilled with chocolate sauce.

Mataloc – Domed sponge cake containing fennel, nuts, raisins, citrus zest and spices, a specialty of the Lake Como region.

Mattarello – Rolling pin.

Mattone, al – Cooking technique of flattening an ingredient with a heavy weight, while grilling or sautéeing it.

Mazoro a la Valesana – Wild duck cooked in a terra-cotta pot with herbs, sardines, and capers.

Mazzafegati – Umbrian pork sausage with orange rind, pine nuts and raisins.

Mazzancolla – Large Mediterranean shrimp.

Mazzarelle d’Agnello – “Bundle of lamb.” Abruzzese dish of lamb’s lungs and offal wrapped in chard or beet greens then braised in white wine.

Mazzetto Odoroso – Bouquet of rosemary, parsley, bay leaf, sage and marjoram used as a garnish but mostly to flavor soups and stews.

Medaglione – “Medallion,” as in a thick cut of meat or fish.

Meino – Lombardian sweet, round cornmeal bread served with heavy cream.

Mela – Apple.

Mela Cotogna – Quince, a fruit used in preserves, as a filling, and in pastry.

Melagrana – Pomegranate.

Melanzane – Eggplant.

Melassa di Miele – Bitter honey.

Melica – Cornmeal.

Melograna – Pomegranate, principally used as a flavoring and coloring in beverages

Melone – Cantaloupe or muskmelon watermelon is cocomero or anguria.

Menola – Picarel fish, not frequently consumed, best stewed.

Menta – Mint many species, wild and cultivated, are used in cooking and beverages.

Menta Piperita – Peppermint.

Merasca – Sour plum, used in preserves.

Merca – Salami made from gray mullet.

Mercato – Market.

Merenda – Snack, light meal or picnic, also called spuntino.

Merendine del Granduca – “Granduke’s snacks,” Tuscan crêpes with a filling of ricotta, strawberries and Malvasia wine.

Meringa – Meringue made from whipped, sweetened egg whites baked at a very low temperature.

Merlano – Whiting fish, similar to cod.

Merluzzo – Fresh cod (as opposed to ‘Baccala’).

Messciua – Ligurian chickpea soup made with wheat or spelt, berries, beans and olive oil.

Messicani – “Mexicans,” a Milanese dish of veal bundles filled with sausage and eggs, sautéed in butter and flavored with Marsala.

Mestolone – A wild duck.

Metodo Charmat – Sparkling wine made by the sealed tank method.

Metodo Classico – Terms for sparkling wine made by the bottle fermentation method, replacing the terms champenois or champenoise, which can no longer be used in Italy.

Mezzaluna – Curved chopping knife with two handles.

Miascia – Lombardian bread pudding made with apples, raisins, pears and rosemary.

Miccone – Lombardian large loaf of bread with a soft center.

Michetta – Milanese five-sided round, crusty bread.

Midolla di Pane – The spongy interior part of a bread loaf.

Midollo – Beef marrow, used to enrich stews and gravies, and commonly consumed from the bone of osso buco.

Miele – Honey.

Migliaccio – Any of a variety of baked cakes or puddings, particularly chestnut-flour cakes or blood pudding.

Mignozzi – Abruzzese sweet fritters flavored with Cognac.

Mignuice – Apulian semolina dumplings.

Milanese, alla – “Milan style.” Any of a variety of dishes associated with Milan, usually involving butter in the cooking process. Costoletta alla milanese is a pounded, breaded veal chop with the bone that is sautéed in butter.

Millassata – Sicilian egg omelet made with artichokes.

Millecosedde – Calabrian soup of dried beans, vegetables and wild mushrooms, served with ditalini and olive oil.

Millefoglie – “Thousand leaves.” Dessert consisting of several layers of very thin puff pastry sheets and pastry cream topped or dusted with chocolate.

Millerighe – Fat, hollow, flattened, ridged maccheroni.

Millesimato – Vintage dated sparkling wine.

Milza – Spleen of cattle, often served as a purée on toasted bread.

Minestra – Generic term for soup and also for first course (covering pasta, risotto, gnocchi, etc.) minestra in brodo is broth with pasta or rice minestrone is hearty vegetable soup minestrina is a light soup or broth see also zuppa.

Minni di Virgini – “Virgins’ breasts,” puffy semolina cakes filled with pastry cream.

Mirtillo – Blueberry, consumed fresh or in a sugar syrup.

Mirto – Myrtle, used to make a liqueur.

Missoltit – Preserved fish made from Lake Como agoni.

Misticanza – Salad of wild greens like arugula, endive and watercress mixed with other fresh ingredients.

Mitili – Mussels, also called cozze.

Mocetta – Chamois prosciutto.

Moleche, moeche – Soft-shell crabs from the Venetian lagoon, usually deep-fried.

Mollica di Pane – Breadcrumb.

Molluschi – Mollusks, including octopus, squid and shellfish, such as clams and mussels.

Molva occhiona – Mediterranean ling fish, similar to cod.

Monacone – “Fat monk.” Caprese casserole made with layers of eggplant, veal, prosciutto, Fontina and tomato.

Mondeghili – Lombardian meat croquettes fried in butter.

Montasio – Mild Friulian cheese, used to make frico.

Monte Bianco – “White mountain.” Piedmontese dessert confection of chestnut purée topped with whipped cream to look like a white mountain.

Montone – Mutton, grown to a year-and-a-half in age. Because of its somewhat chewy texture, it is usually stewed or roasted.

Monzette – Sardinian stuffed snails.

Morchelle – Morel mushrooms.

More – Blackberries.

Morlacco – Veneto mountain cheese made from partially skimmed milk.

Mormora – Striped bream, usually grilled or sautéed.

Morseddu – Calabrian breakfast dish of pork tripe stewed in red wine, tomatoes, chili peppers and herbs.

Mortadella – Large pork sausage, originally from Bologna.

Moscardino – A kind of octopus, usually tiny.

Moscato – Nutmeg.

Mosciame – Dried, salted strips of dolphin, swordfish or tuna.

Mostaccioli – Small cakes of southern Italy made of honey, flour, orange peel, almonds and spices.

Mostarda – Candied fruit flavored with mustard seed, specialty of Cremona.

Mosto del Vino – Wine must.

Motella – Three-bearded rockling fish.

Mozzarella – Smooth, soft white cheese originally from milk of water buffalo (bufala), though cow’s milk fior di latte may also use the name. It is rubbery when fresh, eaten the same day. When older it is firmer, a good melting cheese for pizza and lasagna.

Muffuletta – Soft, spongy bread native to Sicily. Muffuletta is popular in New Orleans, where the term now identifies a sandwich making use of the Sicilian bread.

Muffuliette – Sicilian soft saffron and aniseed rolls.

Muggine – Gray mullet, usually grilled.

Murianengo – Blue-veined cow’s or goat’s milk cheese made along the Italy-France border

Murice – Sea snail, usually sautéed with garlic and oil.

Murseddu – Calabrian dish consisting of tripe, calf’s liver, pork liver, tomatoes, chili pepper, olive oil, red wine, bread dough, and herbs, all of which are cooked slowly in lard.

Murstica – Seasoned newborn anchovies from Calabria.

Muschiata, anatra – Barbary duck.

Muscoli – Ligurian term for mussels.

Muset – Friulian cooked pork sausage containing chili peppers, cinnamon, and white wine. It is aged for one month.

Mustazzolo – Hard Sicilian almond and clove cookie.

Mustella – Forkbeard fish.

Mustica – Calabrian hot sauce made from dried anchovy or sardine spawn, then preserved in chili peppers and olive oil.
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N

Napoletana, alla – “Neapolitan style.” Any of a variety of dishes associated with Naples, usually containing tomatoes and eggplant.

Nasello – Hake, often baked with a mixture of anchovies and breadcrumbs.

Navone – Parsnips, usually boiled, fried, or added to stews and soups.

‘Ncapriata – Apulian fava bean and wild greens soup or purée.

‘Ndocca ‘ndocca – Abruzzese dish of many parts of a pig cut into chunks and stewed with chili peppers, herbs, vinegar and spices.

‘Ndugghia – Calabrian pork sausage containing the lungs and liver.

Necci – Tuscan chestnut flour crêpes baked in terracotta forms and served with pecorino and ricotta.

Negroni – Cocktail of Campari and gin.

Neonata – Tiny fry fish, usually breaded and served with lemon.

Nepitella – Wild mint.

Nespola – Loquat and medlar fruit.

Nidi di Carnevale – “Carnival nests.” Tuscan dessert made of chocolate pasta ribbons coiled into nest-like shapes, then deep fried till crisp and served with a sauce of honey, brandy and blanched almonds.

Nidi di Schiuma – “Nests of whitecaps.” Sicilian capellini made into the shape of nests, then fried and drizzled with honey, cinnamon and candied orange peel.

Nocciola – Hazelnut, by far the most widely used nut in Italian cookery for everything from pastries and chocolate candies to salads.

Noci – Nuts walnuts noce di cocco, coconut noce moscato, nutmeg.

Nocino – Bittersweet liqueur made with green walnuts in their husks.

Nodino – Lombardian term for a noisette of veal cut 1 1/2 inch think.

Nonna, della – “Grandma style,” any dish prepared according to a homestyle cooking tradition.

Norcina, alla – A dish made the way it is in the Umbrian town of Norcia, usually with pork.

Norcineria – Butcher shop specializing in pork and salumi norcino pork butcher.

Norma, alla’ – Sicilian spaghetti dish, sauced with tomato, fried eggplant and grated salted ricotta. It is supposedly named after Bellini’s opera of the same name.

Nucatuli – Sicilian Christmas almond and fig pastry.

Nzugna – Neapolitan dialect word for melted butter.

O

Odori – Herbs.

Olandese – Hollandaise, or simply Dutch.

Olio extra vergine d’oliva del Chianti – Fruity green extra virgin olive oil produced in the Chianti area from Frantoio, Leccino, Moraiolo, and Olivastra olives.

Ombra – A social drink from the Veneto region a small glass of white wine.

Orecchiette – Ear-shaped pasta (orecchie in Italian means “ears”) made of durum flour and water. Their thumb-sized indentations makes them ideal for rich sauces.

Orzata – A drink made of water, malted barley or almonds, and orange water.

Orzo – Barley a small barley-shaped pasta used in soup.

Ossobuco – Braised veal shanks. The meat is first browned, then cooked with vegetables and aromatic herbs until it is extremely tender and falls off the bones. The marrow is the most delicious and prized part, it can be scooped out with a teaspoon often served with risotto.

Ossolana, all’ – Gnocchi all’Ossolana are small boiled potatoes that are cooked in butter and garlic and accompanied by a meat sauce and cheese.

Ovini – The whole category for sheep and goat meat.

P

Paglie e fieno – Literally “hay and straw” mixed green and yellow pasta strands.

Pagnottella – Literally “little loaf” a kind of brioche.

Pancarré – Sliced bread also, a packaged bread used for canapés and sandwiches when there is a preference for regularity of shape over flavor and texture.

Pancetta – The section taken from the fat belly or cheek of a pig, consisting of alternating layers of fat and lean tissue. It can be rolled, aged, salted or smoked.

Pancotto – Bread soup, literally “cooked bread” usually contains bread, olive oil, and cheese.

Pandolce – Similar to Pannettone, but much more dense a traditional Genoese Christmas dessert.

Pandoro – Type of pound cake widely sold at Christmastime, along with panettone.

Pangrattato – Dry breadcrumbs.

Panettone – Italy’s best known Christmas dessert originated in Milan. Soft and spongy, it is made with a natural yeast starter, eggs, butter, candied fruit, and raisins. Shaped like a dome, variations include chocolate or vanilla icing or gelato filling.

Pane carasau – A typical thin bread of Sardinia.

Pane frattau – Sardinian dish made with Carta da Musica bread briefly soaked in warm water and topped with crushed tomatoes, grated Pecorino, and a poached egg.

Panforte (di Siena), or (Sienese) – Cake with almonds and dried fruit.

Panna cotta – A dessert of Piedmontese origins, Panna cotta is made by dissolving unflavored gelatin in milk, then whisking the milk into sweetened heavy cream (sweetened with confectioner’s sugar and vanilla extract). Panna cotta is refrigerated and served with a caramel or strawberry topping.

Pan pepato – Gingerbread (pepato itself as an adj. which means “peppered” or “spiced”).

Panzanella – Tuscan dish consisting of stale bread, tomatoes, olive oil, and wine vinegar. Extra vegetables and spices can be added to the salad based on preference.

Paparot – Spinach soup (Friuli-Venezia Giulia).

Papassine – Crumbly Sardinian sweets that are typically prepared for Easter, Christmas, and on the first of November for All Saints’ Day. Papassine are made with flour, dried fruit, eggs, sugar, lard, orange, and various flavors. Their shape varies depending on where they are made within the island.

Papazoi – Bean soup with barley and corn.

Pappa – Mush soup thickened with bread babyfood.

Pappa al pomodoro – One of Tuscany’s most famous soups, pappa al pomodoro is made with stale bread and ripe tomatoes with the addition of garlic, onions, and basil. Before serving, the soup must be drizzled with olive oil.

Pappardelle – Broad, flat pasta similar to tagliatelle but much wider.

Parmigiana, alla – Parma-style, but not necessarily made with Parmesan cheese.

Passata di pomodoro – Tomato purée (typically sold in bottles or conserved in bottles, and liquid in consistency).

Passatelli – Homemade soup noodles made from a mixture of eggs and bread crumbs.

Pasta Frolla – Crumbly, rich, delicate pastry base made with flour, eggs, sugar, unsalted butter, and salt. Pasta Frolla is used in the making of sweet pies, tarts, and cookies.

Pastella – Batter.

Pasticciato – With ragú, cheese, and butter.

Pastinaca – Parsnip.

Patanabo’ – Jerusalem artichoke.

Pavese – Zuppa alla broth with bread, egg, and cheese (sometimes like French onion soup with egg instead of onion).

Pecorino – Sheep’s milk cheese (the name comes from pecora, sheep) the family is large and varied, but most often its members are on the hard and sharp side. Pecorino Romano, a hard, sharp cheese, is one of the major pecorino cheeses it is produced in a geographically limited zone, which includes Lazio and Sardinia, as well as part of Tuscany.

Penne – Literally “feathers” pasta “quills,” with a hollow tubular form cut short on a slant (thinner than rigatoni).

Penne all’Arabiata – Penne topped with tomato, garlic, and peperoncino.

Peoci – Mussels.

Pepe verde – Green peppercorns.

Pepe – Black pepper.

Peperonata – Stew of sweet peppers, onions, and tomatoes.

Peperoncino –Crushed red pepper.

Peperoni – Roasted red peppers.

Persa – Marjoram.

Pesca noce – Nectarine.

Pesca, pl. pesche – Peach.

Pesce serra – Bluefish, mackerel.

Pesce spada, pescespada – Swordfish.

Pesto – Sauce from Liguria, usually served on pasta made of fresh basil, pignoli nuts, pecorino cheese, and olive oil.

Piadina – Round, flat bread from Romagna.

Piccante – Piquant spicy.

Piccata – Slices of boneless veal, sautéed in butter with parsley and lemon.

Pignolata – Fried or baked balls of dough, which are coated half with chocolate and half with sugar glaze (from Sicily).

Pignoli – Pine nuts.

Piselli – Peas piselli alla fiorentina, peas cooked with onion and pancetta.

Pizzella – Neapolitan deep-fried dough that can be stuffed with meats, cheese, and vegetables.

Pizzichi – Tiny, square-shaped egg pasta.

Pizzoccheri – Thick tagliatelle from Valtellina made from a mixture of buckwheat flour and all-purpose flour. They are boiled, then layered with blanched cabbage, sautéed onions and garlic, and cheese and butter.

Polenta – A thick porridge, best known for its preparation from cornmeal, though other grains (or potatoes) may be used. There are many different ways to prepare polenta, and in certain regions it can even be found as a dessert.

Plenta e osei – A dish of roasted polenta, made with skewered veal, chicken liver, bacon, buttered sage leaves, and mushrooms.

Pollame – Poultry.

Pollanca – Young turkey.

Pollo – Chicken pollo alla diavola, chicken, split, flattened under a weight, brushed with oil and grilled.

Polpette, polpettine – Meatballs, patties, including meatless “meatballs” of other ingredients.

Polpettone – Meat loaf, often cooked in a pot rather than baked.

Polpo, polipo – Octopus.

Pomodoro – Tomato pomodoro con il riso, tomato with rice, a large tomato filled with rice and baked with potatoes on the side, usually eaten in summer, as a PRIMO PIATTO .

Pomplemo – Grapefruit.

Porchetta – A real treat, porchetta is roasted pork stuffed with a mixture of salt, black pepper, wild fennel, and garlic. Porchetta can be eaten warm, but it is mostly savored at room temperature or cold. It can be purchased in chunks or slices.

Porcini, funghi – Boletus mushrooms, cepes.

Porcino di Borgotaro – Famous porcini mushrooms from the small town of Borgo Val di Taro.

Porco – Pig.

Perro – Leek.

Pranzo – Lunch generally, or a meal.

Prezzemolo – Parsley.

Preboggiòn – Collection of wild greens, with variances based on location and season.

Prescinsoeua – Ligurian soured milk often used in making pesto.

Presnitz – Pastry dough stuffed with varied nuts, raisins, candied fruit, and cloves typically served on Easter in Friuli-Venezia Giulia.

Prezzemolo – Parsley.

Primo sale – A sheep’s milk cheese in the early stages of maturation that tastes excellent grated over pasta.

Primizie – The first fruits or vegetables of the season.

Prosciutto di Parma – Salted, and aged ten to twelve months Prosciutto di Parma is strictly produced within the province of Parma.

Prosciutto cotto – Thinly sliced ham from the hind legs of pigs that have been steam cooked.

Prosciutto di San Daniele – Salty and sweet flavor with a smooth texture The climate of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region give Prosciutto di San Daniele its unique characteristics.

Prosciutto toscano – Tuscan prosciutto, seasoned with black pepper and aged for eight to ten months. It is smaller, saltier, and chewier than Prosciutto di Parma.

Provola – Fresh buffalo’s milk cheese similar to SCAMORZA.

Prugna – Prune, plum.

Puntine – Small pasta for soup.

Puttanesca , alla – Literally whore’s-style a quick-cooked tomato sauce for spaghetti that contains black olives, capers, anchovies, and red pepper.
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Q

Q.B. (Quanto basta) – A term used in recipes to mean “as needed,” or “to taste” literally “as much as is enough.”

Quadretti – Small, square egg pasta generally used in broth.

Quaresima – The period of time in the liturgical calendar known as Lent, meals that are served during the quaresima are by necessity meatless and spare.

Quartiretto – Roast young goat, stuffed with vegetables.

Quattro staggioni – This term literally means “four seasons” and is usually applied to a kind of pizza with four distinct toppings. Although these toppings can vary, they usually include artichokes, pancetta, and mushrooms.

R

Rabarbaro – Rhubarb.

Rafano – Horseradish.

Ragu’ – Generically, a hearty sauce, usually meat sauce, and subject to great regional variation cf. BOLOGNESE.

Rapini – This is the Tuscan name for broccoli di rape, know in the United States as broccoli rabe. The stems, tender leaves, and buds of these vegetables of the turnip family are all eaten, and are usually boiled before sautéing to decrease their bitterness.

Ratafià – Sweet liquor made from bitter cherries.

Raviolo – (pl.) Ravioli, small stuffed pasta prepared in a variety of ways, but most traditionally filled with ricotta (with or without greens) reginelle (pl.) pasta strips with curly edges.

Razza – Skate (ray).

Ribollita – Bread-thickened kale soup (Tuscany).

Ricciarelli – Sienese almond cookies, typically covered with a layer of powdered sugar.

Ricotta romana – Produced using whey obtained from sheep’s milk. Ricotta romana is sweet and soft.

Robiola – Creamy, rich, and white cheese.

Rinforzo – Literally means “reinforcement.”

Risaia – Rice paddy.

Robiola – A mild and buttery cow’s milk cheese used in numerous dishes like pasta, appetizers, and salads.

Rocciata di Assissi – Mixed-fruit roll with nuts.

Romana, alla – Rome-style, a term whose definition varies depending on the individual dish.

Romanello – Very hard skim milk cheese whose main purpose is for grating.

Rosmarino – Rosemary.

Rosolio – A delicate liqueur made by macerating rose petals in an alcoholic infusion. Moderately alcoholic, Rosolio has a sweet taste and a unique bouquet. Serve with dessert.

Rosumada – Milanese eggnog, traditionally prepared with red wine, but for which water or milk is sometimes substituted.

Rotelle – Wheel-shaped pasta also known as rotini.

Roventino – Typical Tuscan blood sausage.

Rucola – Eruca sativa used in mixed salads. Known as arugula in the US.

Ruote – Literally means “wheels” wheel-shaped pasta.

Ruspante – Free-range.

S

Saba – A grape syrup commonly produced in Emilia-Romagna by boiling and reducing white grape must. It is used to make thirst-quenching drinks as well as sweet toppings for desserts.

Sagne – (pl.) Short broad strips of pasta made from chickpea or spelt flour nickname for lasagna.

Sagne chine – The Calabrese version of lasagne, sagne chine are stuffed with a combination of ground pork, fresh peas, diced mozzarella, mushrooms, artichokes, and sliced hard-boiled eggs.

Salame della Duja – Piedmontese pork sausage preserved in fat.

Salame di Varzi – Top-quality DOP pork salami produced in the village of Varzi.

Saltimbocca – A classic Roman dish that consists of slices of veal topped with prosciutto and a leaf of sage and held together by a toothpick. The meat is sautéed in butter until golden, then deglazed with white wine. Saltimbocca literally means “jump in your mouth.”

Salto – Lightly-fried.

Salumeria – A shop dedicated only to the retail of cold cuts and cured meats.

Salvia – Sage ( herb).

Salviata – Sage custard.

Sambuca – Anise flavored liqueur, customarily served con le mosche (“with flies”) meaning with three coffee beans floating in it.

Sanguinaccio – Blood pudding, black pudding, blood sausage sweet pudding made from pig’s blood and chocolate.

Sarda – Sardine.

Sardenaira – Ligurian focaccia created by Admiral Andrea Doria. Sardenaira is topped with tomatoes, onions, basil, garlic, olives, capers, and anchovies.

Savoiardi – Long, think, ladyfinger cookies with an airy, delicate bite. Savoiardi measure about three inches long, 3/4-inch wide and 1/2-inch tall, ballooning outward slightly at both ends. A thin layer of sugar is sprinkled on top before baking. They are also known as biscotti al cucchiaio.

Scaccia – Pasta pie baked with tomato and broccoli.

Scachi – Tiny “crackers” for soup.

Scafa peas – Artichokes, fava beans, and potatoes stewed lightly in white wine.

Scalogna, scalogno – Shallot.

Scamorza – One of the most beloved plastic curd cheeses, scamorza is an ivory-colored cheese, made with sheep’s or cow’s milk, cinched with a string, giving it a characteristic pear shape. Scamorza can be either fresh or smoked and can be consumed within one or two days of production.

Scarpetta, fare la – The practice of wiping one’s plate with a piece of bread in order to soak up any remaining sauce. (Note: Though the practice is not considered polite at the finest of tables, its omission in certain situations can run the risk of offending the cook, especially if she is somebody’s mother).

Scorfano – Mediterranean scorpion fish (rascasse).

Schlutzkrapfen – Pasta from Trentino-Alto Adige filled with sauerkraut, cheese, herbs, and potatoes.

Scialatielli – Chewy, handmade pasta from the Amalfi Coast often served with seafood sauces.

Scorfano – Mediterranean scorpion fish.

Scorzonera – A black or brown, scaly root used in numerous ways around the kitchen. Scremato – Literally “uncreamed” skimmed.

Seadas – Sweet fried ravioli stuffed with Pecorino and grated orange or lemon zest typically served with warm honey.

Segale – Rye.

Segato – Finely chopped and mixed with cheese.

Semifreddo – Literally “half cold” a term used to allude to ice-cream-based desserts type of soft ice cream made from meringue and whipped cream.

Semini – Literally “little seeds” small pasta for soup resembling literal meaning.

Seppia – This cephalopod (called cuttlefish in Italian) is a close cousin to the squid, or calamare. Seppia and squid can be used almost interchangeably in cooking. Cuttlefish meat is generally more tender than squid and is often cooked with its ink, nero di seppia, an edible brown-black liquid very similar to squid ink. (The color sepia, a dark reddish-brown, takes its name from the cuttlefish ink that used was once used to make the pigment).

Serpentone – Umbrian pastry served on New Year’s Day stuffed with walnuts, apples, wine-soaked almonds, and figs. Serpentone looks like a coiled snake.

Sfuso – In bulk i.e., not packaged vino sfuso, is bulk wine.

Sgonfiotti – Pastry puffs, fritters.

Sgroppino – Liquid sorbet containing alcohol.

Sgusciato – Shelled.

Sidro – Cider.

Soffritto – Soffritto is a combination of vegetables — carrots, onions, celery, and garlic — that are chopped and slowly cooked in butter, olive oil, or lard until they wilt and become aromatic. Soffritto is the starting point in building layers of flavor in most Italian dishes, and is often added to meat, fish, pasta, or rice.

Sogliola – Sole.

Sopresine – Small pasta for soup.

Soppressa – A Veneto sausage.

Soppressata – In northern Italy the term Soppressata refers to a cured meat made with parts of the pig’s head. In central and southern Italy it is a cured meat that goes by the name of coppa in the rest of Italy, a lean and fatty pork meat combined and pressed together to yield a sliceable salami.

Sospiri di monaca – Literally “nun’s sighs” cookies made from chocolate-covered almond or hazelnut paste (Sicily and Sardinia).

Speck – A smoky cured meat of Trentino-Alto Adige obtained from smoking the boneless haunch of a pig, then curing it for a long time until it takes on a rosy hue and a delicate flavor. Speck is chopped and folded into the batter for dumplings or is sliced and layered over pizzas or salads.

Spezie – Spices.

Spigola – Sea bass, striped bass .

Spina – Birra alla spina – Draft beer.

Spinaci – (pl.) Spinach.

Spongata – Described in some cookbooks as a sweet bun and found in many regions, spongata dates from Ancient Rome, where it was born as an unleavened pastry dough filled with honey. In classic versions from Parma and Busseto, the pastry is a rich cookie dough and the filling has been embellished to include almonds, toasted hazelnuts, walnuts, raisins, orange and citron peel, pine nuts, white wine, brandy, cinnamon, pepper, mace, and coriander.

Spuntino – Snack.

Squarciarella, alla – In a mushroom sauce.

Stelline – Small star-shaped pasta for soup.

Stiacciata – Flat bread, similar to focaccia.

Stinco – Shank of veal or pork, often roasted, though also braised.

Stivaletti – Literally, “little boots” small, curving pasta tubes.

Storione – Leek.

Stracciatella – An ice cream, similar to chocolate chip, in which the chocolate is said to resemble the eggs in the soup, stracciatella all’ romana.

Stracciatella all’Romana – Egg-drop broth, where the eggs supposedly resemble “stracci,” meaning “rags.”

Strangolapreti – A thin, slightly curled pasta, usually handmade with water, eggs, and flour. In southern Italy the same name applies to gnocchi.

Strangozze – Maccheroni-like pasta from Umbria made with only flour or semolina and water.

Strapazzate – Uova, scrambled eggs.

Strascenate – Shell pasta.

Strascinati – Grooved pasta from Basilicata made only with flour and water.

Stricchetti – Pasta in the form of two bow-ties.

Strigolo – (pl.) Wild, spinach-like greens used in salads or for boiling.

Stringhetti – Egg pasta similar to tagliolini.

Stronghe – Long maccheroni.

Struffoli – Small balls of fried pasta held together with honey and decorated with candied fruit.

Suppa quatta – A Sardinian soup made by layering rustic bread with sliced Pecorino. Meat broth is then added and the dish is baked until the broth is nearly all absorbed by the bread.

Suppli – Rice croquette made and sold in pizzerias found all over Italy, but most popularly found in Rome. The word, which is Roman, comes from the French for surprise, and owes its name to the glob of mozzarella hidden inside. The snack’s full name, supplí al telefono, is derived from the strings of mozzarella that form as the cheese melts and that are said to resemble telephone cords.

Surecilli – Literally, “little mice” small gnocchi.

T

Taconelle – Pasta squares.

Taccozze – Puff pastry for noodles.

Tagliata – A very fine slice of beefsteak in general, the steak is very rare and multiple slices are served.

Tagliatelle – Flat noodles, usually made with egg.

Taglierini – A thinner version of tagliatelle, taglierini are a thin, ribbon pasta with a flat, rectangular cut. Made with semolina flour and water, taglierini are good with any vegetable or fish-based sauces.

Tajarin – Thinner version of tagliatelle from Piedmont.

Taralli – Crisp, black pepper-laced, pretzel-shaped snacks made in southern Italy. There are sweet versions where sugar and cinnamon are added to the batter.

Tarantello – A Pugliese cured-tuna salami.

Tardura – Fresh bread crumbs held together by egg and cheese, and cooked in broth.

Tartar – A type of non-sweet pudding, made from egg, milk, cheese, onion, and spices.

Tartufo – (1) Truffle, the tuber (2) A chocolate ice cream dessert molded into the shape of a truffle, and covered in chocolate.

Tartufo d’Alba – White truffle from the small town of Alba, in the province of Cuneo.

Tartufo di Norcia – Black truffle from the town of Norcia, in the province of Perugia.

Testoni – Young eels.

Tigelle – Rounds of bread dough that are cooked over a burner in a special 2-sided metal pan called a “stampo per tigelle.” Crunchy on the outside but soft and doughy on the inside, they are sliced open at the table, filled and eaten like a sandwich. Though the traditional filling is a pesto made from garlic, rosemary, lard and Parmigiano cheese, it is also common to eat the dough rounds stuffed instead with sliced, cured meats such as salami, prosciutto or mortadella.

Timo – Thyme thymus gland.

Tiramisú – Literally it means “pick me up” a rich, layered dessert of sponge cake with brandy and ESPRESSO, MASCARPONE with egg, and chocolate.

Tonnarelli – Long, slightly square handmade spaghetti most commonly served with amatriciana sauce.

Tonno – Tuna.

Torcinelli – Lamb liver rolled in caul fat, tied, then roasted usually flavored with parsley or garlic.

Tortelli – Small pie or omelet, which is sometimes sweetened filled pasta rectangles, often twisted at the ends and resembling pieces of wrapped candy.

Tortellini – Small rings of pasta filled with meat generally found in broth, but sometimes served topped with a sauce.

Tortelloni – Large, triangle-shaped pasta filled with ricotta, grana padano, eggs, parsley, and a hint of nutmeg. Usually served before Christmas because they do not contain meat. Tortelloni can also be stuffed with pumpkin purée.

Tosella – Slices of fresh cheese sautéed in butter.

Totano – Squid.

Tozzetti – Cookies from the region of Latium, made with beaten eggs, sugar, aniseed, white wine, hazelnuts, and almonds.

Tramezzino – Tramezzino is the Italian name for sandwich, created by the fascist regime to replace the foreign expression. The word tramezzino means “in the middle” and it refers to the ingredients that are placed between the two bread slices. Typically, tramezzini are triangular- shaped and are stuffed with cold cuts, tuna, or vegetables.

Trenette – Long pasta, similar to linguine.

Triglia – pl. Triglie – Red mullet.

Tripolini – Small egg-pasta bow-ties used in soup.

Troccoli – Rustic tagliatelle made of durum flour and eggs, then cut with a special tool, called troccolo, which looks like a grooved rolling pin. Usually served with meat sauces.

Trofie – Small rolled pasta from the region of Liguria made with water, salt, and flour. The dough is kneaded by hand for ten minutes, then cut into tiny pea-size bits and rolled under the palm to create an elongated shape with curling ends. Oftern served with Pesto sauce.

Trota – Trout trota iridea, rainbow trout trota salmonata, a pink fleshed trout.

Tuffolone – Large tubes of pasta, typically stuffed and ultimately placed in the oven for baking.

U

Uardi e fasui Bean and barley soup.

Ubriaco – Literally means “drunken,” it refers to dishes containing large amounts of alcohol.

Uccelletto – Indicates the dish has been cooked with sage or bay leaves. This is the traditional method of preparing small game birds (uccelletto in Italian), and has lent its name to dishes like fagiolini all’uccelletto, which is comprised of cannellini beans, tomato, and sage.

Umbrici – fat, handmade spaghetti from Umbria.

Unto – Oily, greasy.

Uva concord – American grape.

Uva Fragola – Black grape used to make “fragolino” wine Uva Fragola is literally called strawberry.

Uva Italia – Large Muscat grape known to be one of the best of Italy.

Uva Regina – Elongated grape known for its golden hue and sweet taste.

Uva spina – Gooseberry.

Uvetta – Raisins.

V

Valigini – Literally, “little cases” or “purses” meat rolls filled with parsley, garlic, egg, cheese, and bread crumbs.

Vaniglia – Vanilla.

Vanillina – Vanilla-flavored sugar used in baking and sold in little envelopes.

Vermicelli – The word most commonly used in Campania and in Calabria to describe thin spaghetti.

Verza – Savoy cabbage.

Verzata – Cabbage casserole.

Veste verde – Wrapped in vine leaves.

Vianda Dried, homemade pasta from Genova.

Viccillo – Ring-shaped pasta filled with salami, mozzarella, and hard-boiled egg.

Vignarolla – Roman dish served in the spring containing braised fresh peas, fava beans, artichokes, and possibly bacon (guanciale).

Vin santo – Tuscan dessert wine, with a nutty-caramel flavor and a deep golden color, traditionally served with cantucci.

Vinello – A light table wine (i.e., the type of bottle brought on picnics).

Violini – Goat prosciutto, sliced by hand with a long blade (as if playing a violin).

Vitella, vitello – Veal.

Vongole – Clams vongole veraci, small clams with a pair of tiny “horns” on the meat.

Vuotazucchine – Long corer used to make a cylindrical hollow in zucchini so that they can be stuffed.
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Z

Zabaglione – A dessert of egg yolks, sugar, and Marsala, or an ice cream of the same flavor, sweetened egg custard with Marsala often spelled Zabaione.

Zafferano – Saffron.

Zaleti – A flattened cookie-like pastry common of Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, and Trentino-Aldo Adige.

Zenzero – Ginger red pepper.

Zeppole – Southern Italian sweet fritters prepared during Carnevale.

Ziti – Long, hollow pasta tube.

Zucca – Pumpkin squash, winter squash see also fiore.

Zucchero – Sugar.

Zucchine, zucchini – Summer squash, zucchini.

Zuccotto – A type of semifreddo dessert molded into a hemispheric shape its name probably derives form the slang meaning of zucca (literally, “pumpkin” or “squash”), which is “head.”

Zuppa angelica – A sponge cake dessert topped with a chocolate cream sauce, and similar to Zuppa Inglese.

Zuppa Inglese – A desert of English origin, consisting of wedges of sponge cake or ladyfingers dipped in sweet wine or liquor. Whipped cream, candied fruit and chopped bittersweet chocolate are then layered in between. Zuppa Inglese is similar to the English trifle.

Zurrette – Sardinian recipe similar to the Scottish haggis. Lamb’s blood, lardo, cheese, and bread are stuffed into a lamb’s stomach and boiled.
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Midwife’s Assistant Certification

Parents do not experience childbearing in isolated segments but as a continuum. A relationship flows naturally to lovemaking with pregnancy following, which flows into the birth, postpartum, and child-raising. It is a continuous process that is woven into the rest of their life. The parent is also a part of a family and a larger society. This program is based on that continuity and context and what parents really need during this time.

What is the job?

A Birth Arts International Midwife’s Assistant can provide a continuity of care lacking in our fragmented health care and social service systems. Midwife’s Assistant can support the client prenatally, during birth, postpartum, and family life. Traditionally, parents learned how to be parents and care for their children from their families and their community’s support. In these times, all too often, a client finds themselves isolated with no one to “hang out with” to learn these things naturally. They may want to do things differently than their own parents. They may turn to books, TV, or the internet searching for their community. The Midwife’s Assistant is a person in their own community that the client can get to know during pregnancy and will feel comfortable turning to throughout the childbearing year. The Midwife’s Assistant will know this client, family, and particular circumstances and tailor her care to her individual needs.

You help clients and families!

Clients process feelings and thoughts by talking with others. As they talk, clarity appears, and they are able to work out problems for themselves. The Midwife’s Assistant offers an understanding ear and a reflective perspective. The Midwife’s Assistants can directly help the client. Cooking, shopping, doing household chores, child care, breastfeeding support, giving information, or sharing resources are some of the things a midwife’s assistant does. Midwife’s Assistants also work under the direction of a Midwife to offer clients continuity of care.

Support

We know that one on one, in-home, personal support works better than large classes or brief visits with a care provider. Clients prefer this, and the whole family benefits from such intensive care. The Midwife’s Assistant always fosters family bonding, showing the partner or other family members how they can support the parents and baby.

The Midwife’s Assistant will be familiar with local resources and refer clients to what they need. Midwife’s Assistants can work with the local health departments, social services, hospitals, homebirth midwives, birth education or breastfeeding groups, or her own. The Midwife’s Assistant is familiar with alternative/complementary health care modalities that are available.

Offering Care

The Midwife’s Assistant is not a medical caregiver. Although a lot of midwives ‘ assistants are students or apprentice midwives, they may need to take the program to work with area midwives. Many students are nurses you must check with your nursing board before working as both. She does have specified basic health assessment skills she is competent to perform. The Midwife’s Assistant may also teach them to parents so they can do them for themselves. The Midwife’s Assistant is knowledgeable about normal childbearing and encourages the client to see their caregiver when there are medical questions.

Working Together

A midwife’s assistant works with a regional midwife as an assistant caregiver to families. Midwives Assistants do not work independently, delivering babies they work under a seasoned midwife. They learn and develop skills to assist midwives clinically for pregnancy, birth, and postpartum.

Birth Arts International is educating you to be a valuable resource for your community. Our goal is to bring currently available training to a deeper level. Advanced education modules are also available. We feel this way of caring for birthing clients will contribute greatly to the health of clients, their families, the community, and the world.


How Troy Aikman and His Wife Capa Mooty Make Their Blended Family Work

For Troy Aikman and his wife Catherine, finding each other was a second chance at love. Now the couple and their four children are a real-life Brady Brunch. Troy brought two daughters to the marriage, and Catherine brought two sons.

The Hall of Fame Cowboys quarterback was married from 2000 to 2011 to his ex-wife, Rhonda Worthey, and the former couple share two daughters together, Jordan (born 2001) and Alexa (born 2002).

Troy, 54, was single for more than five years until he met Catherine, who goes by "Capa," in early 2016. Capa was a single mom in the Dallas area who previously opened a mobile fashion boutique in a revamped truck. (Think a food truck but with bangles and pumps.)

Capa has two high-school aged sons, Luke and Val. The boys&rsquo grandmother is the sister of Dallas Cowboys owner, Jerry Jones. (Talk about a small world&mdashTroy played for the Cowboys from 1989 to 2000 and won his three Super Bowl championships with the team!)

The couple got engaged in June 2017 in Lake Como, Italy and married three months later in a small ceremony in Santa Barbara, California, according to People.

Troy had previously been quiet about his personal life. But after marrying Capa, he started sharing his newfound happiness on social media. On their second wedding anniversary, Troy posted a photo of the couple on Instagram with the caption: &ldquoI love you. I love us. I love our family. Happy anniversary to the ❤ of my life! 🎈&rdquo

On social media, Troy also refers to their family of six as #teamsix. The close knit family is very supportive of each other. The four children all attend the same private school in Dallas, and Troy even coaches his stepson&rsquos high school football team!

Troy had previously thought about coaching his daughters in sports but he worried that he&rsquod push them too hard. &ldquoI just want to be Dad,&rdquo He told GQ in 2012. But with his stepson Val&rsquos team, there was an easy solution&mdashTroy could be the quarterbacks coach.

Troy typically helps at practices on Tuesday and Wednesday nights. He attends Friday night games, but he&rsquos busy on Thursdays and Sundays as an announcer for NFL football on Fox.

When they aren&rsquot cheering in the stands, the Aikman family is outdoors. They enjoy hiking and paddle boarding together. Even though they are busy with four teenagers, Troy and Capa make time to connect just the two of them. Earlier this year, the couple went on an African safari. In 2018, they went to Hawaii.


Contents

According to some studies, it seems that the garum, a fermented fish sauce beloved by the ancient Roman patricians, came from Sardinia too. The excavation sites around the Cagliari port bear witness of the fact that the ancient Sardinians from the coastal areas never ceased their activities on the sea. Sardinian seafood culture had been influenced by the Italian Pisan-Genoan cuisine, especially to the South-West of the island, and by the Catalan culture starting from Alghero all the way to the Strait of Bonifacio. The coastal centres, especially Cagliari, Carloforte, Oristano, Alghero, Castelsardo, Santa Teresa di Gallura, La Maddalena and Olbia, present fish- and crustacean-based dishes with recipes exalting their local qualities [ citation needed ] .

  • Typical dishes of Cagliari are the fregula cun còciula ("fregula with clams") the còciula e cotza a sa schiscionera ("clams and mussels cooked in a pan"), and then the burrida a sa casteddaja (based on dogfish, vinegar and walnuts), the cassòla, a soup combining various kinds of fish, crustaceans and mollusks s'aligusta a sa casteddaja ("Cagliaritan-style lobster") the common spaghitus with clams and butàriga, and the spaghitus cun arritzonis, that is sea urchin spaghetti with artichoke or wild asparagus.
  • The cuisine typical of the Oristano area and the Cabras ponds, but even Bosa, often include eels. From the fish eggs, the mullet botargo is extracted, which can be served alone or used to dress the pasta. Another traditional product is sa merca, made up of slices of boiled and salted mullet being wrapped in a sack aromitized with a paludal herb, the zibba (obione in Italian). A variety of the burrida (dogfish) can also be tasted.
  • Along the Sulcis coastline are some of the most ancient tuna fisheries of the Mediterranean. The local cuisine is influenced by Genoa, and is strongly based on bluefin tuna fishing and related products, like botargo, the tuna heart, the musciame, the buzzonaglia, the lattume and the Tabarchin cascà, a variety of the couscous dressed with vegetables.
  • The cuisine of Alghero reflects the Catalan influence permeating the town, which can be seen from the Catalan way with which the lobster is prepared, that is boiled with tomato, celery and onion and accompanied by a sauce of lemon, olive oil, salt and pepper.
  • Towards Santa Teresa and the Maddalena archipelago, octopus salads are a typical specialty, while in Olbia there are dishes based on mussels and clams. From both the north and the south of the island are the so-called Ortziadas or Bultigghjata, floured and fried sea anemones.

First courses Edit

Here are some typical first courses:

  • the malloreddus are tapered-shoaped durum wheat semolina pasta traditionally flavored with saffron. They are usually seasoned with Campidano or sausage sauce, but among the typical recipes there is the variant with Casu furriau that is with melted cheese and saffron. They are also known as cigiones in Sassari and Cravaos in Nuoro, and - in Italian - Gnocchetti sardi [5]
  • the culurgiones are fresh durum wheat dumplings filled with ricotta and mint, or with a filling based on potato, fresh cheese and mint
  • lorighittas are pasta prepared since ancient times in Morgongiori, a small town in the middle of the island, weaving a double strand of pasta
  • the macarrones de busa, that is a sort of bucatini made with a special elongated iron
  • the macarrones furriaos, dumplings topped with very fresh pecorino cheese, melted together with the bran to form a sort of cream
  • the macarrones cravàos, o de punzu or macarrones de ùngia, in gallurese called chiusòni or ciusòni, are particular small dumplings of durum wheat semolina in the form of small cylinders of 3–4 cm in size, spread all over the island but in particular in Gallura [6]
  • the fregula is instead a particular dry pasta made from durum wheat semolina, worked in small lumps and used for typical dishes such as fregula with clams or fregula with sauce. It is also used to make soups with meat broths [7]
  • the gallurese soup or suppa cuatta is a dish consisting of Sardinian bread, casizolu, spices and pecorino cheese, all softened with broth and cooked in the oven
  • typical of the sassarese is the fabadda (favata), traditionally prepared during the carnival period and consists of a soup made with dried beans, cabbage, fennel, pork rind and pork
  • the panada is a timbale made with puff pastry and stuffed with lamb (or eels), potatoes and dried tomatoes, and is a specialty of Assemini, Oschiri, Berchidda, Pattada and Cuglieri
  • the pane frattau or bread carasau soaked in the broth, arranged in layers interspersed with grated pecorino and tomato sauce and with a poached egg on top
  • the soup and 'merca, made with su succu, a particular type of pasta similar to tagliolini, with tomatoes, zucchini, potatoes (depending on the variants), with the final addition of curdled sheep's milk (frue) is a pasta that is made only in Nuoro, made with the finest semolina, woven in a particular way and served with sheep's broth and plenty of fresh cheese
  • su succu, first dish typical of Busachi, prepared with very thin tagliolini, or angel hair, cooked in sheep's broth, flavored with saffron in stigmas, and seasoned with fresh, acidulous pecorino.

Second courses Edit

  • Porchetta or porcetto, in Sardinian porceddu or porcheddu, the suckling pig of about 4 – 5 kg or twenty days, cooked slowly on a spit, on grills and flavored after cooking with myrtle or rosemary. This roast is a classic of Sardinian pastoral cuisine [8]
  • roast suckling lamb, weighing a maximum of 7 kg, white flesh and soft and intense flavor is a tradition among the oldest of the island, always a land of shepherds of which this dish was one of the most typical habits food. Lamb meat also forms the basis of various typical Panadas
  • roast baby goat is a particularly sought after dish. The kid is roasted slowly on a spit. Normally the only seasoning is the fine salt, which is given during cooking.
  • wild boar meat cooked with the carraxu method (cooking in an underground hole). This particular cooking consists in filling the embers hole to heat the walls Once the ash has been removed, the branches of myrtle and thyme are spread out on the bottom, laying the wild boar on top of it and then covering it with other branches then closes the hole with the earth and lights up on it a fire. It is also cooked in sweet and sour, cutting the meat into small pieces and browning it in chopped onion, parsley, myrtle and thyme and then adding vinegar and tomato sauce [9]
  • Cordula or Cordedda consists of intestines of braided kid or lamb cooked and wrapped around a spit or cooking it in a pan with peas (cordula cun pisurci) or other variants [10]
  • the trattalia or Tattaliu, based on lamb or goat's breast, is cooked roasted with a spit, piercing alternating pieces of liver, heart, sweetbreads, and lung that must first be partially cooked, wrapped with peritoneum and tied with all the neatly cleaned, or in a pan with peas or artichokes [11]
  • the Zurrette or "sambene" is a dish prepared with sheep's blood seasoned with animal fat (obtained by frying a beat of "tripe" tramacuo - the omentum of the sheep - in extra virgin olive oil), onion, thyme snake and mint (puleu, wild mint), grated pecorino and shredded carasau bread, cooked inside the animal's stomach, by boiling or, rarely, on the embers.
  • the Berbeche in coat or the boiled sheep with onions and potatoes, served with carasau bread soaked in the cooking broth.
  • i Pillonis de tàccula is a dish based on game, mainly thrushes (durduros) and merlons (meurra) boiled, salted and flavored with myrtle leaves
  • the zimino or ziminu cooked in a grabiglia or veal entrails such as the parasangu (diaphragm), the cannaculu (intestine), heart, kidneys, liver and spleen, cooked in a grill on the grill is a traditional sassarese dish.
  • le Mungetas or snails (also called snails), in their various sizes ranging from the minudda ciuta (Theba pisana) boiled with potatoes, to the thick ciogas (Eobania vermiculata) prepared with a spicy sauce or with garlic and parsley, to the coir (Cornu aspersum) that are served filled with a mixture of cheese, eggs, parsley and breadcrumbs, to the Mungetas cooked in a pan with garlic, oil, parsley and breadcrumbs. As well as a typical dish from Ossi and Sassari, they are present as a specialty in Gesico nel Medio Campidano [12].
  • Su Ghisadu typical logudorese dish of sheep's meat or wild pork roasted over low heat with tomato, bay leaf, garlic and parsley the sauce is an excellent condiment for gnocchetti "cicciones" or ravioli "colunzones".
  • The small spit ispinada where sheep meat is stuffed into softer cuts, alternating with parts of the back fat.

Even desserts, like the other products of Sardinian gastronomy, vary considerably from region to region. Here are the most known ones:

  • the Seadas or Sebadas, are discs of thin dough that enclose a filling of fresh, slightly sour pecorino cheese, melted with semolina, or fresh cow, and flavored with lemon, fried and covered with melted honey, preferably bitter (like that of corbezzolo)
  • the Casadinas, typical of Logudoro and Barbagia, are filled pasta pies with a low layer of lemon-flavored fresh cheese. Their traduction for Italians is Formaggelle they are also widespread in the variant with ricotta and take the name of Regotinas or in Italian Ricottelle.
  • the Pàrdulas are very similar to the Casadinas but the filling is based on ricotta, they have a domed appearance, are softer than casadinas and are covered with powdered or granulated sugar. They are typical of Campidano.
  • Aranzada is a common dessert in the Baronies and in the Nuoro area. It is prepared with candied orange peel in honey and toasted almonds, rhomboidal in shape and presented on an orange leaf
  • the Pabassinas, Papassinos or Pabassinus, in Italian Papassini, are spread all over the territory and are prepared with semolina, walnuts, raisins, almonds or hazelnuts
  • the Cattas, Frigjolas or Frisolas or Frisjoli longhi are prepared mainly during the carnival and are made with flour, potatoes, water, sugar, anise and grated orange peel, fried in the form of long cords
  • the Orilletas are desserts prepared with flour dough and eggs. After frying they are immersed in a hot syrup of honey and water
  • the Copulettas are a double disk of thin shortcrust pastry filled with sapa or cooked honey. They are mainly spread in the Goceano and in Ozieri
  • the Gueffus or Guelfos, in Italian Sospiri, balls made of ground almonds, sugar and lemon. They are typical of Ozieri and packed with small sheets of colored paper
  • Candelaus are desserts prepared in the most varied forms and prepared with a dough of almond paste that incorporates a mixture of fresh almonds, flavored with orange blossom water and glazed
  • the Pistocus, in Italian Biscotti di Fonni, the 'Sardinian Savoy biscuits'
  • the Tziliccas, Tiriccas or Caschettas, with a horseshoe, crescent or heart shape. They consist of an external part of short pastry and a filling that depending on the area can be either sapa and walnuts, or honey and saffron.
  • is Angules and a sweet typical of the Ortueri area, with a round shape, amber-colored, decorated with drawings made with the momperiglia with the shapes of flowers, fruit or animals
  • the Bianchinos, Bianchittus or Bianchittos, are meringues, prepared with the egg whites of snow, of pyramidal shape and of very friable structure, often garnished with almonds
  • the Cruxoneddus de mèndula or Culurgioneddos de mèndula are raviolini made with puff pastry filled with almonds, fried and covered with a layer of powdered sugar. They are also found stuffed with custard, ricotta or sapa cream
  • Amarettos, also called Marigosos, are sweet macaroons prepared with ingredients based on sweet almonds (about 70%) and bitter almonds (30%), sugar, egg white and lemon peel
  • the Bucconettes, typical of the Barbì of Belvì, are prepared with toasted and chopped hazelnuts, grated zest of lemon and orange, mixed to form balls and cooked in honey syrup and sugar, wrapped in tinfoil and then in sheets of tissue paper colored
  • the Abbamele is one of the oldest gastronomic products of the rural culture of Sardinia, and it is a derivative of honey, have been defined in the labels as "abbamele" and "abbattu", using mainly in Sardinian language, which unequivocally underline the origins, or in Italian "decoction of honey or honey and pollen" or "honey sapa"
  • the Pane 'e saba, a typical winter sweet from barbaricino oven, prepared with the saba
  • the nougat of Tonara, as well as those of Pattada, Ozieri and Orgosolo, has an ivory color because it is prepared with honey from the Mediterranean
  • the Rujolos are ricotta balls and grated orange or lemon peel then dipped in a hot solution of water and honey (to grind)
  • Gatò de mèndula is a crunchy of toasted almonds and flavored with orange peel
  • Mandagadas are also known as Tritzas, Acciuleddi. They are desserts made of a braided and honey-impregnated dough. They are prepared with durum wheat flour, eggs and Sardinian honey
  • the Mustatzolos, or Mustaciolus, as the Papassinos are lozenge-shaped and flavored with lemon, cinnamon and glazed in the upper part
  • the Papai-biancu, typical in the city of Alghero with the name of Manjar blanc in Catalan, is prepared with cream of milk, starch and lemon peel.
  • the Pistoccheddus de cappa, a dessert originally from the village of Serrenti, a hard golden-shaped biscuit shaped according to animal shapes and covered with icing "sa cappa", silver little devils and gilded friezes.
  • Pane carasau is a bread with the shape of thin, very crunchy discs obtained through a double cooking in a wood oven it can be consumed dry even after many days or slightly wet and rolled up guttiau bread is a preparation of the same carasau bread that is heated in the oven with a little oil and salt
  • the Pistoccu is produced mainly in Ogliastra. It is prepared in the same way as carasau, but has a more consistent thickness and is preferred to consume it moist
  • the Civraxiu or Civargiu is a large loaf typical of Campidani and southern Sardinia in general
  • the Coccoi a pitzus is a type of decorated bread, once produced for the great occasions, today always present
  • the Modditzos (from "modditzi", the common mastic in the Mediterranean stain that provides the scented wood used for cooking) is circular in shape and very soft, also produced with the addition of potatoes, mainly in the area of Dorgali but widespread on all the regional territory
  • the Zichi, typical of Bonorva
  • the Spianada, of circular and soft shape, characteristic of the nuorese, was once prepared during the monthly bread making of Pane carasau and consumed in the following days.

Several vineyards are present in every corner across the island, from the Campidanese and coastal plains, to the hilly and mountainous highlands. The particular composition of the soil and the sunny climate allow for high quality productions. The long winemaking tradition has its roots in the Nuraghic past, and from then on it did not suffer any interruptions since the island never fell under Arab rule, and thus the Islamic prohibition on alcohol did not affect Sardinia at all on the contrary, winemaking saw a major increase in the Byzantine and the Judgedoms period. Today, there are 15 IGT, 19 DOC and 1 Docg wines on the island. The Cannonau is a typical sardinian red wine very rich in phenols made from Grenache grapes - perfect for red meats.

One of the popular cheeses of the area is casu marzu, a Sardinian sheep's milk cheese that contains live maggots to help assist the fermentation of the cheese.


SB Doula Services is Coming Soon!

Thanks for visiting! The site is under construction, but the doors are open for business. In the meantime if you have questions about Santa Barbara Doula Services or are looking for a birth doula, a postpartum doula, or nutrition consulting services please feel free to contact me directly at: [email protected]

I am a CAPPA trained Birth and Postpartum Doula, and I am a Certified Nutrition Consultant with over a decade of experience in the health and wellness industry. I have expertise in teaching moms-to-be how to cook super-foods that are supportive of the nutritional demands of pregnancy and postpartum periods. I also have classes for dads-to-be where they can learn how to prepare nutrient rich foods that will help mama’s recovery after delivery.

Please feel free to contact me with any questions have about how a doula can support your family as you embark on the most amazing journey of your lives!

I serve families on the Central Coast from Los Olivos to Ojai, and I am based in Santa Barbara.


Day 1

Wine and Dine On Board a Train

Courtesy of Louis M. Martini Winery / Kristen Cropper

You can’t visit Napa Valley without a trip to some of the area’s most historic and famous wineries where this great wine region began to make its mark on the world. The best way to do this is to board the Napa Valley Wine Train for their Quattro Vino Legacy Tour. This six-hour journey down Napa’s Highway 29 is one of the best tours around it takes you all the way back to pre-prohibition and the 1800s for a crash course in Napa Valley history. The trip features scenic views from a refurbished, antique railcar, a four-course gourmet meal, and stops for wine tastings at Robert Mondavi, Charles Krug (Napa Valley’s oldest winery), and V. Sattui wineries.

If you decide to take the self-guided route by driving yourself or hiring a driver, some other historically-significant winery stops to consider are Merryvale Vineyards, Inglenook, and Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars. And make a point to stop by the historic Louis M. Martini Winery to admire the newly renovated space while you sip.

Explore Downtown Napa

Courtesy of Fieldwork Brewing

The train will drop you off in Napa, within walking distance to downtown. Stroll over to the Oxbow Public Market, where you can shop from a myriad of local vendors for souvenirs and gifts, like locally-made olive oils or spirits from Napa Valley Distillery. You can also grab a pre-dinner snack &mdash think, oysters from Hog Island Oyster Co., a mini Sweet S’mores or Chocolate Velvet cupcake from Kara’s Cupcakes, or organic ice cream from Three Twins, in flavors like Mocha Difference and Land of Milk and Honey. Thirsty? Grab a pint at Fieldwork Brewing Company.

Next, cross over the First St. Bridge to the main part of Downtown Napa. Here you can stop in at one of the many wine tasting rooms, wine bars, or restaurants for Happy Hour. We love Cadet, Carpe Diem, and Compline wine bars for pre-dinner drinks. Make a reservation for dinner on the Napa Riverfront at the famous Morimoto or the romantic French bistro Angele. If you fancy a nightcap, Silo’s, also on the Napa Riverfront, has live music almost nightly.

Courtesy of Facebook: The Westin Verasa Napa

Reserve a hotel room in downtown Napa so that you can abandon your car for the day. The Westin Verasa Napa is conveniently across the street from the Wine Train station, while the Andaz Napa is at the heart of downtown Napa activity.


Continue reading to find out more about.

  • 1. Get lost for words at the Grand Canyon
  • 2. Walk the Siq to Petra, Jordan
  • 3. Relish the cheap seats at Shakespeare's Globe
  • 4. Get blown away by the Great Wall of China
  • 5. Sail the Whitsundays, Australia
  • 6. Visit the Taj Mahal by moonlight, India
  • 6. See the floral wave of cherry blossoms, Japan
  • 8. Traverse the Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia
  • 9. Explore the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
  • 10. Take a train journey through the Scottish Highlands
  • 11. Bed down in an igloo, Canada
  • 12. Climb Mont St-Michel, France
  • 13. Rage wine war in La Rioja, Spain
  • 14. Spot puffins in the Faroes
  • 15. Solve the mysteries of Pompeii, Italy
  • 16. Get in high spirits on the Bourbon trail, USA
  • 17. Come eye-to-eye with Africa’s mountain gorillas, Rwanda
  • 18. Follow the oyster trail in Galway, Ireland
  • 19. Meet sun bears in Borneo, Malaysia
  • 20. See the Blackpool illuminations, England
  • 21. Down a stein at Oktoberfest, Germany
  • 22. Explore the land of the fairy chimneys, Turkey
  • 23. Marvel at the pyramids of Giza, Egypt
  • 24. Take a hot air balloon over the savannah, Kenya
  • 25. Climb Table Mountain, South Africa
  • 26. Eat barbecue in Texas Hill Country, USA
  • 27. Explore mystical Sintra
  • 28. Hike the Pennine Way, England & Scotland
  • 29. Have a beer in Brussels, Belgium
  • 30. Eat gelato in Rome
  • 31. Feel the heat in a Finnish sauna
  • 32. Brave the Devil's Throat at Iguazú,
  • 33. Paint the town red at La Tomatina, Spain
  • 34. Kayak Milford Sound, New Zealand
  • 35. Celebrate the Loy Krathong Festival of Light, Thailand
  • 36. Down caipirinhas in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 37. Climb Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
  • 38. Spend the day at Tivoli, Denmark
  • 39. Crank up the volume on King's Day, the Netherlands
  • 40. Marvel at Gaudí’s Sagrada Família, Spain
  • 41. Float down Norway's Geirangerfjord
  • 42. Hike Half Dome in Yosemite, USA
  • 43. Relive the Wild West at the Calgary Stampede,
  • 44. Watch the sunrise at
  • 45. Fall under the spell of Luang Prabang, Laos
  • 46. Get away from it all in the Gilis, Indonesia
  • 47. Take the polar plunge, Antarctica
  • 48. Hit the streets for Notting Hill Carnival, England
  • 49. Drop in on the churches of Lalibela, Ethiopia
  • 50. Celebrate the Biennale in Venice, Italy

Read through our ultimate travel bucket list, with not just the top places to see, but the unique experiences that you can have when you visit these amazing locations around the world.


Feast of St. Martin (Martinmas)

Complete with a recipe for your Martinmas goose for the feast!

St. Martin of Tours -- "The Glory of Gaul" -- was born around A.D. 316 in Szombathely, Hungary (known then as Sabaria, Pannonia) and grew up the son of a Roman military officer in Pavia, Italy. He joined the Roman army and was sent to Amiens, where, on horseback, he met a starving man begging alms at the city gates. Moved by deep compassion, he tore his red, woolen his cloak in two with his sword and gave half to the beggar. The next night, he had a dream in which he saw Jesus wearing the half of the cloak he'd given away, surrounded by angels. In the dream, Our Lord asked him to look at it and to see if he recognized it. He did, of course, and realized that he must convert and devote his life to Christ. (St. Martin's remaining piece of cloak became a very revered relic. In fact, the building where his cloak -- "cappa" in Latin -- was preserved was known as the "cappella," the root of our words "chapel" and "chaplain.")

When he was around 20 years of age, some Teutons invaded Gaul and were repelled. When he went before Emperor Julian to receive his reward, he was moved to refuse the bounty, saying "Up to now, I have served you as a soldier allow me henceforth to serve Christ. Give the bounty to these others who are going out to battle. I am a soldier of Christ and it is not lawful for me to fight." Julian accused him of cowardice and had him imprisoned, but he was released after a truce was called.

He got out of the army in Worms and, after spending time at Isola d'Albenga (then Gallinaria), met up with St. Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers and became his disciple, living a solitary life until others gathered around him, forming the Benedictine Abbey of Ligugé. After a decade of this life, he went on journeys around the area to preach the Gospel, and his popularity grew to such an extent that when St. Hilary of Poitier's successor died, the people of the town elected St. Martin to succeed him as Bishop, in spite of St. Martin's protests. Indeed, St. Martin was rather "tricked" into the position.

According to the Catholic Encyclopedia:
When St. Lidorius, second Bishop of Tours, died in 371 or 372, the clergy of that city desired to replace him by the famous hermit of Ligugé [St. Martin]. But, as Martin remained deaf to the prayers of the deputies who brought him this message, it was necessary to resort to a ruse to overcome his resistance. A certain Rusticius, a rich citizen of Tours, went and begged him to come to his wife, who was in the last extremity, and to prepare her for death. Without any suspicions, Martin followed him in all haste, but hardly had he entered the city when, in spite of the opposition of a few ecclesiastical dignitaries, popular acclamation constrained him to become Bishop of the Church of Tours.

As Bishop, he led an exemplary simple life, a life that inspired the formation of yet another monastery, one called Marmoutier. He fought battles against the Priscillianists and Ithacians, evangelized and set up religious communities as far away as Paris and Vienne, visited every parish in his large diocese each year, and died around the age of 81, so loved that he became known as "The Glory of Gaul." St. Martin is the patron of beggars, vintners, equestrians, soldiers, tailors, innkeepers, alcoholics, and geese. He is usually depicted in art on horseback, handing half of his cloak to a beggar, or relinquishing his arms. His symbol is the goose. You may also see him riding on a donkey based on the apocryphal story of him walking to Rome and meeting up with the devil, who mocked him for not riding on a donkey as a Bishop should. St. Martin turned the devil into a donkey and rode him all the way to Rome, urging him on with the Sign of the Cross. The angered devil cursed him with this palindrome:
Signa te Signa: temere me tangis et angis:
Roma tibi subito motibus ibit amor

("Cross, cross thyself, you plague and vex me without need
For by my labors you shall soon reach Rome, the object of your wishes")

St. Martin's Feast is considered the first day of Winter for practical purposes, so, alluding to the snows of that season, the Germans say that "St Martin comes riding on a white horse." Of course, it might not feel like Winter if one is experiencing a "St. Martin's Summer" -- the equivalent of an "Indian Summer." It is said, too, that one can predict what sort of Winter one will have by the conditions of St. Martin's Day: "If the geese at Martin’s Day stand on ice, they will walk in mud at Christmas."

The Feast coincides not only with the end of the Octave of All Souls, but with harvest time, the time when newly-produced wine is ready for drinking, and the end of winter preparations, including the butchering of animals (an old English saying is "His Martinmas will come as it does to every hog," meaning "he will get his comeuppance" or "everyone must die"). Because of this, St. Martin's Feast is much like the American Thanksgiving (celebrated on the 4th Thursday in November) -- a celebration of the earth's bounty. Because it also comes before the penitential season of Advent, it is seen as a mini "carnivale" with all the feasting and bonfires. As at Michaelmas on 29 September, goose is eaten in most places (the goose is a symbol for St. Martin himself. It is said that as he was hiding from the people who wanted to make him Bishop, a honking goose gave away his hiding spot), but unlike most Catholics, those of Britain and Ireland prefer pork or beef on this day.

Goose with Apple Stuffing
(Martinsgans mit Apfelfüllung) (Serves 6 to 8)

1 ready-to-cook goose (8 to 10 pounds)
2 cups water
1 small onion, sliced
1 1/4 teaspoon salt
6 cups soft bread crumbs
3 tart apples, chopped
2 stalks celery (with leaves), chopped
1 medium onion, chopped
1/4 cup margarine or butter, melted
2 teaspoons salt
1 teaspoon ground sage
1/2 teaspoon ground thyme
1/4 teaspoon pepper
1 teaspoon salt
1/4 cup all-purpose flour

Trim excess fat from goose. Heat giblets, water, sliced onion and 1 1/4 teaspoons salt to boiling reduce heat. Cover and simmer until giblets are done, about 1 hour. Strain broth cover and refrigerate. Chop giblets toss with remaining ingredients except 1 teaspoon salt and the flour. Rub cavity of goose with 1 teaspoon salt. Fold wings across back with tips touching. Fill neck and body cavities of goose lightly with stuffing. Fasten neck skin of goose to back with skewers. Fasten opening with skewers lace with string. Tie drumsticks to tail. Prick skin all over with fork. Place goose breast side up on rack in shallow roasting pan. Roast uncovered in 350° oven until done, 3 to 3 1/2 hours, removing excess fat from pan occasionally. Place a tent of aluminium foil loosely over goose during last hour to prevent excessive browning. Goose is done when drumstick meat feels very soft. Place goose on heated platter. Let stand 15 minutes for easier carving. Meanwhile, pour drippings from pan into bowl. Return 1/4 cup drippings to pan. Stir in flour. Cook over low heat, stirring constantly, until smooth and bubbly. Remove from heat. If necessary, add enough water to reserved broth to measure 2 cups. Stir into flour mixture. Heat to boiling, stirring constantly. Boil and stir 1 minute. Serve goose with apple stuffing and gravy. Guten Appetit! (Recipe from the German Embassy)

If you eat goose, save the furcula -- the "wish bone" -- from the bird's chest. Physician Johannes Hartlieb wrote in 1455,

When the goose has been eaten on St. Martin's Day or Night, the oldest and most sagacious keeps the breast-bone and allowing it to dry until the morning examines it all around, in front, behind and in the middle. Thereby they divine whether the winter will be severe or mild, dry or wet, and are so confident in their prediction that they will wager their goods and chattels on its accuracy.

Afterward, the dried wish bone -- which, in essence, can be seen as the birds' fused clavicles, or collar bones -- can be tugged on by a person at each end as they each make a wish. The person who ends up with the larger part after the bone breaks is the person whose wish is said to come true.

In many countries, including Germany, Martinmas celebrations begin at the eleventh minute of the eleventh hour of this eleventh day of the eleventh month. Bonfires are built, and children carry lanterns in the streets after dark, singing songs for which they are rewarded with candy.

And on a macabre final note, old superstitious folklore (not Catholic teaching, of course) says that if you stand in the back of the church and look out over the congregants on St. Martin's Day, you can see auras of light around the heads of those who will not be among the living at the next Martinmas.

For further reading, see "On the Life of St. Martin" by Sulpicius Severus, in this site's Catholic Library.

Note: In America, November 11 is also Veterans Day -- the day to remember those who've served their country in the Armed Forces. In the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries such as Canada and Australia, the day is known as Remembrance Day, and focuses more strictly on those who've died while serving their country in the Armed Forces (for Americans, this more strict focus is observed on Memorial Day, the last Monday in May). Veterans Day and Remembrance Day both began as "Armistice Day," which is the anniversary of the World War I Armistice (truce) signed in the Forest of Compiegne by the Allies and the Germans in 1918. In all of these countries, red poppies are worn to honor the fallen.


Troy Aikman’s Wife Capa Mooty

This lovely lady is Capa Mooty and she is the new wife of former NFL player Troy Aikman the Hall of Famer and once star quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys has two children Jordan Ashley, 15, and Alexa Marie, 14, from his marriage to ex-wife Rhonda Worthey.

No doubt you all know about Ai, but but probably some if you hardly know anything about Capa. Therefore, check out what Fabwags can tell you about this momma.

I guess that you probably read that Capa has two sons from a previous marriage, and where does her name Capa come from? Capa Mooty was actually born Catherine Cecile Person on October 13, 1970.

She was previously married to Jerry Mooty, father of her two sons Val, 15, and Luke, 13, her ex-husbands happens to the nephew of Jerry Jones’ aunt’s son, Hello Jerry Jones as in Dallas Cowboys owner!

So Jerry and Capa eventually divorced, he is now married to his second wife Samantha and well Capa started dating Troy Aikman in 2013, they recently got engaged.

Aikan and Capa tied the knot on the beach in Santa Barbara, California on Saturday, September 2, 2017

Mrs. Mooty is an actor at Ivett Stone Agency in Dallas, Texas. You can follow her on Twitter here.


Watch the video: Φραντάλα μ στίχοι+απόδοση (December 2021).